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7.3: Calculations of Electric Potential

Point charges, such as electrons, are among the fundamental building blocks of matter. Furthermore, spherical charge distributions (such as charge on a metal sphere) create external electric fields exactly like a point charge. The electric potential due to a point charge is, thus, a case we need to consider.

We can use calculus to find the work needed to move a test charge q from a large distance away to a distance of r from a point charge q. Noting the connection between work and potential \(W = -q\Delta V\), as in the last section, we can obtain the following result.

Note: Electric Potential V of a Point Charge

The electric potential V of a point charge is given by

\[V = \frac{kq}{r} (point \space charge)\]

where k is a constant equal to \(9.0 \times 10^9 \space N \cdot m^2/C^2.\)

The potential at infinity is chosen to be zero. Thus, V for a point charge decreases with distance, whereas \(\vec{E}\) for a point charge decreases with distance squared:

\[E = \dfrac{F}{q_t} = \dfrac{kq}{r^2}\]

Recall that the electric potential V is a scalar and has no direction, whereas the electric field \(\vec{E}\) is a vector. To find the voltage due to a combination of point charges, you add the individual voltages as numbers. To find the total electric field, you must add the individual fields as vectors, taking magnitude and direction into account. This is consistent with the fact that V is closely associated with energy, a scalar, whereas \(\vec{E}\) is closely associated with force, a vector.

Example

What Voltage Is Produced by a Small Charge on a Metal Sphere?

Charges in static electricity are typically in the nanocoulomb (nC) to microcoulomb \((\mu C)\) range. What is the voltage 5.00 cm away from the center of a 1-cm-diameter solid metal sphere that has a –3.00-nC static charge?

Strategy

As we discussed in Electric Charges and Fields, charge on a metal sphere spreads out uniformly and produces a field like that of a point charge located at its center. Thus, we can find the voltage using the equation \(V = \frac{kq}{r}\).

Solution

Entering known values into the expression for the potential of a point charge, we obtain

\[V = k\frac{q}{r} = (9.00 \times 10^9 \space N \cdot m^2/C^2)\left(\frac{-3.00 \times 10^{-9}C}{5.00 \times 10^{-2}m}\right) = - 539 \space V.\]

Significance

The negative value for voltage means a positive charge would be attracted from a larger distance, since the potential is lower (more negative) than at larger distances. Conversely, a negative charge would be repelled, as expected.

Example

What Is the Excess Charge on a Van de Graaff Generator?

A demonstration Van de Graaff generator has a 25.0-cm-diameter metal sphere that produces a voltage of 100 kV near its surface (Figure). What excess charge resides on the sphere? (Assume that each numerical value here is shown with three significant figures.)

The figure shows the parts of Van de Graaff generator.

Figure 7.3.1. The voltage of this demonstration Van de Graaff generator is measured between the charged sphere and ground. Earth’s potential is taken to be zero as a reference. The potential of the charged conducting sphere is the same as that of an equal point charge at its center.

Strategy

The potential on the surface is the same as that of a point charge at the center of the sphere, 12.5 cm away. (The radius of the sphere is 12.5 cm.) We can thus determine the excess charge using the equation

\[V = \frac{kq}{r}.\]

Solution Solving for q and entering known values gives

\[q = \frac{rV}{k} = \frac{(0.125 \space m)(100 \times 10^3 \space V)}{8.99 \times 10^9 N \cdot m^2/C^2} = 1.39 \times 10^{-6} C = 1.39 \space \mu C.\]

Significance

This is a relatively small charge, but it produces a rather large voltage. We have another indication here that it is difficult to store isolated charges.

Note

Check Your Understanding What is the potential inside the metal sphere in Example?

[Hide Solution]

\(V = k\frac{q}{r} = (8.99 \times 10^9 N \cdot m^2/C^2) \left(\frac{-3.00 \times 10^{-9} C}{5.00 \times 10^{-3} m}\right) = - 5390 \space V\) recall that the electric field inside a conductor is zero. Hence, any path from a point on the surface to any point in the interior will have an integrand of zero when calculating the change in potential, and thus the potential in the interior of the sphere is identical to that on the surface.

The voltages in both of these examples could be measured with a meter that compares the measured potential with ground potential. Ground potential is often taken to be zero (instead of taking the potential at infinity to be zero). It is the potential difference between two points that is of importance, and very often there is a tacit assumption that some reference point, such as Earth or a very distant point, is at zero potential. As noted earlier, this is analogous to taking sea level as \(h = 0\) when considering gravitational potential energy \(U_g = mgh\).

Systems of Multiple Point Charges

Just as the electric field obeys a superposition principle, so does the electric potential. Consider a system consisting of N charges \(q_1,q_2,. . ., q_N\). What is the net electric potential V at a space point P from these charges? Each of these charges is a source charge that produces its own electric potential at point P, independent of whatever other changes may be doing. Let \(V_1, V_2, . . ., V_N\) be the electric potentials at P produced by the charges \(q_1,q_2,. . ., q_N\), respectively. Then, the net electric potential \(V_p\) at that point is equal to the sum of these individual electric potentials. You can easily show this by calculating the potential energy of a test charge when you bring the test charge from the reference point at infinity to point P:

\[V_p = V_1 + V_2 + . . . + V_N = \sum_1^N V_i.\]

Note that electric potential follows the same principle of superposition as electric field and electric potential energy. To show this more explicitly, note that a test charge \(q_i\) at the point P in space has distances of \(r_1,r_2, . . . ,r_N\) from the N charges fixed in space above, as shown in Figure. Using our formula for the potential of a point charge for each of these (assumed to be point) charges, we find that

Note

\[V_p = \sum_1^N k\frac{q_i}{r_i} = k\sum_1^N \frac{q_i}{r_i}.\]

Therefore, the electric potential energy of the test charge is

\[U_p = q_tV_p = q_tk\sum_1^N \frac{q_i}{r_i},\] which is the same as the work to bring the test charge into the system, as found in the first section of the chapter.

The figure shows N charges located at different distances from a fixed point P.

Figure 7.3.2. Notation for direct distances from charges to a space point P.

The Electric Dipole

An electric dipole is a system of two equal but opposite charges a fixed distance apart. This system is used to model many real-world systems, including atomic and molecular interactions. One of these systems is the water molecule, under certain circumstances. These circumstances are met inside a microwave oven, where electric fields with alternating directions make the water molecules change orientation. This vibration is the same as heat at the molecular level.

Example

Electric Potential of a Dipole

Consider the dipole in Figure with the charge magnitude of \(q = 3.0 \space \mu C\) and separation distance \(d = 4.0 \space cm.\) What is the potential at the following locations in space? (a) (0, 0, 1.0 cm); (b) (0, 0, –5.0 cm); (c) (3.0 cm, 0, 2.0 cm).

The figure shows an electric dipole with two charges (3.0nC and -3.0nC) located 4.0cm apart on the z axis. The center of the dipole is at the origin and three other points are marked at (0, 0, 1.0 cm), (0, 0, –5.0 cm) and (3.0 cm, 0, 2.0 cm).

Figure 7.3.3. A general diagram of an electric dipole, and the notation for the distances from the individual charges to a point P in space.

Strategy

Apply \(V_p = k \sum_1^N \frac{q_i}{r_i}\) to each of these three points.

Solution

a. \(V_p = k \sum_1^N \frac{q_i}{r_i} = (9.0 \times 10^9 \space N \cdot m^2/C^2) \left(\frac{3.0\space nC}{0.010 \space m} - \frac{3.0\space nC}{0.030 \space m}\right) = 1.8 \times 10^3 \space V\)

b. \(V_p = k \sum_1^N \frac{q_i}{r_i} = (9.0 \times 10^9 \space N \cdot m^2/C^2) \left(\frac{3.0\space nC}{0.070 \space m} - \frac{3.0\space nC}{0.030 \space m}\right) = -5.1 \times 10^2 \space V\)

c. \(V_p = k \sum_1^N \frac{q_i}{r_i} = (9.0 \times 10^9 \space N \cdot m^2/C^2) \left(\frac{3.0\space nC}{0.030 \space m} - \frac{3.0\space nC}{0.050 \space m}\right) = 3.6 \times 10^2 \space V\)

Significance

Note that evaluating potential is significantly simpler than electric field, due to potential being a scalar instead of a vector.

Note

Check Your Understanding What is the potential on the x-axis? The z-axis?

[Hide Solution]

The x-axis the potential is zero, due to the equal and opposite charges the same distance from it. On the z-axis, we may superimpose the two potentials; we will find that for \(z > > d\), again the potential goes to zero due to cancellation.

Now let us consider the special case when the distance of the point P from the dipole is much greater than the distance between the charges in the dipole, \(r >> d\); for example, when we are interested in the electric potential due to a polarized molecule such as a water molecule. This is not so far (infinity) that we can simply treat the potential as zero, but the distance is great enough that we can simplify our calculations relative to the previous example.

We start by noting that in Figure the potential is given by

\[V_p = V_+ + V_- = k \left( \frac{q}{r_+} - \frac{q}{r_-} \right)\]

where

\[r_{\pm} = \sqrt{x^2 + \left(z \pm \frac{d}{2}\right)^2}.\]

The figure shows an electric dipole located on the z axis with center at the origin. Point P, located at (x, 0, z) is distance r away from the origin.

Figure 7.3.4. A general diagram of an electric dipole, and the notation for the distances from the individual charges to a point P in space.

This is still the exact formula. To take advantage of the fact that \(r >> d\), we rewrite the radii in terms of polar coordinates, with \(x = r \space sin \space \theta\) and z = r \space cos \space \theta\). This gives us

\[r_{\pm} = \sqrt{r^2 \space sin^2 \space \theta + \left(r \space cos \space \theta \pm \frac{d}{2} \right)^2}.\]

We can simplify this expression by pulling r out of the root,

\[r_{\pm} = \sqrt{sin^2 \space \theta + \left(r \space cos \space \theta \pm \frac{d}{2} \right)^2}\]

and then multiplying out the parentheses

\[r_{\pm} = r \sqrt{sin^2\space \theta + cos^2 \space \theta \pm cos \space \theta\frac{d}{r} + \left(\frac{d}{2r}\right)^2} = r\sqrt{1 \pm cos \space \theta \frac{d}{r} + \left(\frac{d}{2r}\right)^2}.\]

The last term in the root is small enough to be negligible (remember \(r >> d\), and hence \((d/r)^2\) is extremely small, effectively zero to the level we will probably be measuring), leaving us with

\[r_{\pm} = r\sqrt{1 \pm cos \space \theta \frac{d}{r}}.\]

Using the binomial approximation (a standard result from the mathematics of series, when \(a\) is small)

\[\frac{1}{\sqrt{1 \pm a}} \approx 1 \pm \frac{a}{2}\]

and substituting this into our formula for \(V_p\), we get

\[V_p = k\left[\frac{q}{r}\left(1 + \frac{d \space cos \space \theta}{2r} \right) - \frac{q}{r}\left(1 - \frac{d \space cos \space \theta}{2r}\right)\right] = k\dfrac{qd \space cos \theta}{r^2}.\]

This may be written more conveniently if we define a new quantity, the electric dipole moment,

Note

\[\vec{p} = q\vec{d},\]

where these vectors point from the negative to the positive charge. Note that this has magnitude qd. This quantity allows us to write the potential at point P due to a dipole at the origin as

Note

\[V_p = k\frac{\vec{p} \cdot \hat{r}}{r^2}.\]

  A diagram of the application of this formula is shown in Figure.

The figure shows two vectors r and p with an angle theta between them.

Figure 7.3.5. The geometry for the application of the potential of a dipole.

There are also higher-order moments, for quadrupoles, octupoles, and so on. You will see these in future classes.

Potential of Continuous Charge Distributions

We have been working with point charges a great deal, but what about continuous charge distributions? Recall from Equation that

\[V_p = k\sum \frac{q_i}{r_i}.\]

We may treat a continuous charge distribution as a collection of infinitesimally separated individual points. This yields the integral

Note

\[V_p = \int \frac{dq}{r}\]

for the potential at a point P. Note that r is the distance from each individual point in the charge distribution to the point P. As we saw in Electric Charges and Fields, the infinitesimal charges are given by

\[dq = \lambda \space dl \space (one \space dimension)\]

\[dq = \sigma \space dA \space (two \space dimensions)\]

\[dq = \rho \space dV \space (three \space dimensions)\]

where \(\lambda\) is linear charge density, \(\sigma\) is the charge per unit area, and \(\rho\) is the charge per unit volume.

Example

Potential of a Line of Charge

Find the electric potential of a uniformly charged, nonconducting wire with linear density \(\lambda\) (coulomb/meter) and length L at a point that lies on a line that divides the wire into two equal parts.

Strategy

To set up the problem, we choose Cartesian coordinates in such a way as to exploit the symmetry in the problem as much as possible. We place the origin at the center of the wire and orient the y-axis along the wire so that the ends of the wire are at \(y = \pm L/2\). The field point P is in the xy-plane and since the choice of axes is up to us, we choose the x-axis to pass through the field point P, as shown in Figure.

The figure shows a line charge on the y-axis with its center at the origin. Point P is located on the x-axis at distance x away from the origin.

Figure 7.3.6. We want to calculate the electric potential due to a line of charge.

Solution

Consider a small element of the charge distribution between y and \(y + dy\). The charge in this cell is \(dq = \lambda \space dy\) and the distance from the cell to the field point P is \(\sqrt{x^2 + y^2}\). Therefore, the potential becomes

\[V_p = k \int \frac{dq}{r} = k\int_{-L/2}^{L/2} \frac{\lambda \space dy}{\sqrt{x^2 + y^2}} = k\lambda \left[ln \left(y + \sqrt{y^2 + x^2}\right) \right]_{-L/2}^{L/2}\]

\[= k\lambda \left[ ln \left(\left(\frac{L}{2}\right) + \sqrt{\left(\frac{L}{2}\right)^2 + x^2}\right)  - ln\left(\left(-\frac{L}{2}\right) + \sqrt{\left(-\frac{L}{2}\right)^2 + x^2}\right)\right]\]

\[= k\lambda ln \left[ \frac{L + \sqrt{L^2 + 4x^2}}{-L + \sqrt{L^2 + 4x^2}}\right].\]

Significance

Note that this was simpler than the equivalent problem for electric field, due to the use of scalar quantities. Recall that we expect the zero level of the potential to be at infinity, when we have a finite charge. To examine this, we take the limit of the above potential as x approaches infinity; in this case, the terms inside the natural log approach one, and hence the potential approaches zero in this limit. Note that we could have done this problem equivalently in cylindrical coordinates; the only effect would be to substitute r for x and z for y.

Example

Potential Due to a Ring of Charge

A ring has a uniform charge density \(\lambda\), with units of coulomb per unit meter of arc. Find the electric potential at a point on the axis passing through the center of the ring.

Strategy

We use the same procedure as for the charged wire. The difference here is that the charge is distributed on a circle. We divide the circle into infinitesimal elements shaped as arcs on the circle and use cylindrical coordinates shown in Figure.

The figure shows a ring of charge located on the xy-plane with its center at the origin. Point P is located on the z-axis at distance z away from the origin.

Figure 7.3.7. We want to calculate the electric potential due to a ring of charge.

Solution

A general element of the arc between \(\theta\) and \(\theta + d\theta\) is of length \(Rd\theta\) and therefore contains a charge equal to \(\lambda Rd\theta\). The element is at a distance of \(\sqrt{z^2 + R^2}\) from P, and therefore the potential is

\[V_p = k\int \frac{dq}{r} = k \int_0^{2\pi} \frac{\lambda Rd\theta}{\sqrt{z^2 + R^2}} = \frac{k \lambda R}{\sqrt{z^2 + R^2}} \int_0^{2\pi} d\theta = \frac{2\pi k \lambda R}{\sqrt{z^2 + R^2}} = k \frac{q_{tot}}{\sqrt{z^2 + R^2}}.\]

Significance

This result is expected because every element of the ring is at the same distance from point P. The net potential at P is that of the total charge placed at the common distance, \(\sqrt{z^2 + R^2}\).

Example

Potential Due to a Uniform Disk of Charge

A disk of radius R has a uniform charge density \(\sigma\) with units of coulomb meter squared. Find the electric potential at any point on the axis passing through the center of the disk.

Strategy

We divide the disk into ring-shaped cells, and make use of the result for a ring worked out in the previous example, then integrate over r in addition to \(\theta\). This is shown in Figure.

The figure shows a disk of charge located on the xy-plane with its center at the origin. Point P is located on the z-axis at distance z away from the origin.

Figure 7.3.8. We want to calculate the electric potential due to a disk of charge.

Solution

An infinitesimal width cell between cylindrical coordinates r and \(r + dr\) shown in Figure will be a ring of charges whose electric potential \(dV_p\) at the field point has the following expression

\[dV_p = k \frac{dq}{\sqrt{z^2 + r^2}}\]

where

\[dq = \sigma 2\pi r dr.\]

The superposition of potential of all the infinitesimal rings that make up the disk gives the net potential at point P. This is accomplished by integrating from \(r = 0\) to \(r = R\):

\[V_p = \int dV_p = k2\pi \sigma \int_0^R \frac{r \space dr}{\sqrt{z^2 + r^2}},\]

\[= k2\pi \sigma ( \sqrt{z^2 + R^2} - \sqrt{z^2}).\]

Significance

The basic procedure for a disk is to first integrate around θ and then over r. This has been demonstrated for uniform (constant) charge density. Often, the charge density will vary with r, and then the last integral will give different results.

Example

Potential Due to an Infinite Charged Wire

Find the electric potential due to an infinitely long uniformly charged wire.

Strategy

Since we have already worked out the potential of a finite wire of length L in [link], we might wonder if taking \(L \rightarrow \infty\) in our previous result will work:

\[V_p = lim_{L \rightarrow \infty} k \lambda ln \left(\frac{L + \sqrt{L^2 + 4x^2}}{-L + \sqrt{L^2 + 4x^2}}\right).\]

However, this limit does not exist because the argument of the logarithm becomes [2/0] as \(L \rightarrow \infty\), so this way of finding V of an infinite wire does not work. The reason for this problem may be traced to the fact that the charges are not localized in some space but continue to infinity in the direction of the wire. Hence, our (unspoken) assumption that zero potential must be an infinite distance from the wire is no longer valid.

To avoid this difficulty in calculating limits, let us use the definition of potential by integrating over the electric field from the previous section, and the value of the electric field from this charge configuration from the previous chapter.

Solution

We use the integral

\[V_p = - \int_R^p \vec{E} \cdot d\vec{l}\]

where R is a finite distance from the line of charge, as shown in Figure.

The figure shows an infinite line charge on the z-axis. Points P and R are located on the x-axis.

Figure 7.3.9. Points of interest for calculating the potential of an infinite line of charge.

With this setup, we use \(\vec{E}_p = 2k \lambda \frac{1}{s} \hat{s}\) and \(d\vec{l} = d\vec{s}\) to obtain

\[V_p - V_R = - \int_R^p 2k\lambda \frac{1}{s}ds = -2 k \lambda ln\frac{s_p}{s_R}.\]

Now, if we define the reference potential \(V_R = 0\) at \(s_R = 1 \space m\), this simplifies to

\[V_p = -2 k\lambda \space ln \space s_p.\]

Note that this form of the potential is quite usable; it is 0 at 1 m and is undefined at infinity, which is why we could not use the latter as a reference.

Significance

Although calculating potential directly can be quite convenient, we just found a system for which this strategy does not work well. In such cases, going back to the definition of potential in terms of the electric field may offer a way forward.

Check Your Understanding What is the potential on the axis of a nonuniform ring of charge, where the charge density is \(\lambda (\theta) = \lambda \space cos \space \theta\)?

[Hide Solution]

It will be zero, as at all points on the axis, there are equal and opposite charges equidistant from the point of interest. Note that this distribution will, in fact, have a dipole moment.

Summary

  • Electric potential is a scalar whereas electric field is a vector.
  • Addition of voltages as numbers gives the voltage due to a combination of point charges, allowing us to use the principle of superposition: \[V_p = k\sum_1^N \frac{q_i}{r_i}.\]
  •   An electric dipole consists of two equal and opposite charges a fixed distance apart, with a dipole moment \(\vec{p} = q\vec{d}\).
  • Continuous charge distributions may be calculated with \[V_p = k\int \frac{dq}{r}.\]

Conceptual Questions

Exercise

Compare the electric dipole moments of charges \(\pm Q\) separated by a distance d and charges \(\pm Q/2\) separated by a distance d/2.

[Hide Solution]

The second has 1/4 the dipole moment of the first.

Exercise

Would Gauss’s law be helpful for determining the electric field of a dipole? Why?

Exercise

In what region of space is the potential due to a uniformly charged sphere the same as that of a point charge? In what region does it differ from that of a point charge?

[Hide Solution]

The region outside of the sphere will have a potential indistinguishable from a point charge; the interior of the sphere will have a different potential.

Exercise

Can the potential of a nonuniformly charged sphere be the same as that of a point charge? Explain.

Problems

Exercise

A 0.500-cm-diameter plastic sphere, used in a static electricity demonstration, has a uniformly distributed 40.0-pC charge on its surface. What is the potential near its surface?

[Hide Solution]

\(V = 144 \space V\)

Exercise

How far from a \(1.00 \space \mu C\) point charge is the potential 100 V? At what distance is it \(2.00 \times 10^2 \space V\)?

Exercise

If the potential due to a point charge is \(5.00 \times 10^2 \space V\) at a distance of 15.0 m, what are the sign and magnitude of the charge?

[Hide Solution]

\(V = \frac{kQ}{r} \rightarrow Q = 8.33 \times 10^{-7} \space C\);

The charge is positive because the potential is positive.

Exercise

In nuclear fission, a nucleus splits roughly in half. (a) What is the potential \(2.00 \times 10^{-14} \space m\) from a fragment that has 46 protons in it? (b) What is the potential energy in MeV of a similarly charged fragment at this distance?

Exercise

A research Van de Graaff generator has a 2.00-m-diameter metal sphere with a charge of 5.00 mC on it. (a) What is the potential near its surface? (b) At what distance from its center is the potential 1.00 MV? (c) An oxygen atom with three missing electrons is released near the Van de Graaff generator. What is its energy in MeV when the atom is at the distance found in part b?

[Hide solution]

a. \(V = 45.0 \space MV\);

b. \(V = \frac{fQ}{r} \rightarrow r = 45.0 \space m\);

c. \(\Delta U = 132 \space MeV\)

Exercise

An electrostatic paint sprayer has a 0.200-m-diameter metal sphere at a potential of 25.0 kV that repels paint droplets onto a grounded object.

(a) What charge is on the sphere? (b) What charge must a 0.100-mg drop of paint have to arrive at the object with a speed of 10.0 m/s?

Exercise

(a) What is the potential between two points situated 10 cm and 20 cm from a \(3.0 \space \mu C\) point charge? (b) To what location should the point at 20 cm be moved to increase this potential difference by a factor of two?

[Hide Solution]

\(V = kQ/r\); a. Relative to origin, find the potential at each point and then calculate the difference.

\(\Delta V = 135 \times 10^3 \space V\);

b. To double the potential difference, move the point from 20 cm to infinity; the potential at 20 cm is halfway between zero and that at 10 cm.

Exercise

Find the potential at points \(P_1, \space P_2, \space P_3\), and \(P_4\)  in the diagram due to the two given charges.

The figure shows two charges, 5mC (located 4cm left from the center) and -10mC (located 4cm right from the center). Four Point P subscript 1, P subscript 2, P subscript 3 and P subscript 4 are located 2cm left, 2cm right, 3cm below and 3cm above the center.

Exercise

Two charges \(-2.0 \space \mu C\) and \(+2.0 \space \mu C\) are separated by 4.0 cm on the z-axis symmetrically about origin, with the positive one uppermost. Two space points of interest \(P_1\) and \(P_2\) are located 3.0 cm and 30 cm from origin at an angle \(30^o\) with respect to the z-axis. Evaluate electric potentials at \(P_1\) and \(P_2\) in two ways: (a) Using the exact formula for point charges, and (b) using the approximate dipole potential formula.

[Hide Solution]

a. \(V_{p1} = 7.4 \times 10^5 \space V\) and \(V_{p2} = 6.9 \times 10^3 \space V\);

b. \(V_{p1} = 6.9 \times 10^5 \space V\) and \(V_{p2} = 6.9 \times 10^3 \space V\)

Exercise

(a) Plot the potential of a uniformly charged 1-m rod with 1 C/m charge as a function of the perpendicular distance from the center. Draw your graph from \(s = 0.1 \space m\) to \(s = 1.0 \space m\). (b) On the same graph, plot the potential of a point charge with a 1-C charge at the origin. (c) Which potential is stronger near the rod? (d) What happens to the difference as the distance increases? Interpret your result.

Glossary

electric dipole
system of two equal but opposite charges a fixed distance apart
electric dipole moment
quantity defined as \(\vec{p} = q\vec{d}\) for all dipoles, where the vector points from the negative to positive charge