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Astronomy is the earliest branch of classical mechanics. Astronomical observatories date back to around 4900BC when wooden solar observatories, called henges, were built in Europe. Stonehenge in England is a well-known example which was built ∼ 3000 $$\mathit{BC}$$.
The mesopotamian people, who lived in the land between the Tigress and Euphrates rivers, developed cuneiform writing and recorded accurate numerical data around 3500 − 3000 $$\mathit{BC}$$. They recognized that the motion of the planets was periodic as reported in Babylonian tablets. After 2700 $$\mathit{BC}$$  the Egyptians built pyramids that are aligned to the pole star and they made significant advances in astronomy, mathematics and medicine