# 2.7: Thermodynamic Potentials


$$\newcommand\bes{\begin{split}}$$
$$\newcommand\ltwid{\propto}$$
$$\newcommand\ees{\end{split}}$$
$$\newcommand\mib{\mathbf}$$
$$\newcommand\Sa{\textsf a}$$
$$\newcommand\Sb{\textsf b}$$
$$\newcommand\Sc{\textsf c}$$
$$\newcommand\Sd{\textsf d}$$
$$\newcommand\Se{\textsf e}$$
$$\newcommand\Sf{\textsf f}$$
$$\newcommand\Sg{\textsf g}$$
$$\newcommand\Sh{\textsf h}$$
$$\newcommand\Si{\textsf i}$$
$$\newcommand\Sj{\textsf j}$$
$$\newcommand\Sk{\textsf k}$$
$$\newcommand\Sl{\textsf l}$$
$$\newcommand\Sm{\textsf m}$$
$$\newcommand\Sn{\textsf n}$$
$$\newcommand\So{\textsf o}$$
$$\newcommand\Sp{\textsf p}$$
$$\newcommand\Sq{\textsf q}$$
$$\newcommand\Sr{\textsf r}$$
$$\newcommand\Ss{\textsf s}$$
$$\newcommand\St{\textsf t}$$
$$\newcommand\Su{\textsf u}$$
$$\newcommand\Sv{\textsf v}$$
$$\newcommand\Sw{\textsf w}$$
$$\newcommand\Sx{\textsf x}$$
$$\newcommand\Sy{\textsf y}$$
$$\newcommand\Sz{\textsf z}$$
$$\newcommand\SA{\textsf A}$$
$$\newcommand\SB{\textsf B}$$
$$\newcommand\SC{\textsf C}$$
$$\newcommand\SD{\textsf D}$$
$$\newcommand\SE{\textsf E}$$
$$\newcommand\SF{\textsf F}$$
$$\newcommand\SG{\textsf G}$$
$$\newcommand\SH{\textsf H}$$
$$\newcommand\SI{\textsf I}$$
$$\newcommand\SJ{\textsf J}$$
$$\newcommand\SK{\textsf K}$$
$$\newcommand\SL{\textsf L}$$
$$\newcommand\SM{\textsf M}$$
$$\newcommand\SN{\textsf N}$$
$$\newcommand\SO{\textsf O}$$
$$\newcommand\SP{\textsf P}$$
$$\newcommand\SQ{\textsf Q}$$
$$\newcommand\SR{\textsf R}$$
$$\newcommand\SS{\textsf S}$$
$$\newcommand\ST{\textsf T}$$
$$\newcommand\SU{\textsf U}$$
$$\newcommand\SV{\textsf V}$$
$$\newcommand\SW{\textsf W}$$
$$\newcommand\SX{\textsf X}$$
$$\newcommand\SY{\textsf Y}$$
$$\newcommand\SZ{\textsf Z}$$
$$\newcommand\Ha{\hat a}$$
$$\newcommand\Hb{\hat b}$$
$$\newcommand\Hc{\hat c}$$
$$\newcommand\Hd{\hat d}$$
$$\newcommand\He{\hat e}$$
$$\newcommand\Hf{\hat f}$$
$$\newcommand\Hg{\hat g}$$
$$\newcommand\Hh{\hat h}$$
$$\newcommand\Hi{\hat \imath}$$
$$\newcommand\Hj{\hat \jmath}$$
$$\newcommand\Hk{\hat k}$$
$$\newcommand\Hl{\hat l}$$
$$\newcommand\Hm{\hat m}$$
$$\newcommand\Hn{\hat n}$$
$$\newcommand\Ho{\hat o}$$
$$\newcommand\Hp{\hat p}$$
$$\newcommand\Hq{\hat q}$$
$$\newcommand\Hr{\hat r}$$
$$\newcommand\Hs{\hat s}$$
$$\newcommand\Ht{\hat t}$$
$$\newcommand\Hu{\hat u}$$
$$\newcommand\Hv{\hat v}$$
$$\newcommand\Hw{\hat w}$$
$$\newcommand\Hx{\hat x}$$
$$\newcommand\Hy{\hat y}$$
$$\newcommand\Hz{\hat z}$$
$$\newcommand\HA{\hat A}$$
$$\newcommand\HB{\hat B}$$
$$\newcommand\HC{\hat C}$$
$$\newcommand\HD{\hat D}$$
$$\newcommand\HE{\hat E}$$
$$\newcommand\HF{\hat F}$$
$$\newcommand\HG{\hat G}$$
$$\newcommand\HH{\hat H}$$
$$\newcommand\HI{\hat I}$$
$$\newcommand\HJ{\hat J}$$
$$\newcommand\HK{\hat K}$$
$$\newcommand\HL{\hat L}$$
$$\newcommand\HM{\hat M}$$
$$\newcommand\HN{\hat N}$$
$$\newcommand\HO{\hat O}$$
$$\newcommand\HP{\hat P}$$
$$\newcommand\HQ{\hat Q}$$
$$\newcommand\HR{\hat R}$$
$$\newcommand\HS{\hat S}$$
$$\newcommand\HT{\hat T}$$
$$\newcommand\HU{\hat U}$$
$$\newcommand\HV{\hat V}$$
$$\newcommand\HW{\hat W}$$
$$\newcommand\HX{\hat X}$$
$$\newcommand\HY{\hat Y}$$
$$\newcommand\HZ{\hat Z}$$
$$\newcommand\Halpha{\hat\alpha}$$
$$\newcommand\Hbeta{\hat\beta}$$
$$\newcommand\Hgamma{\hat\gamma}$$
$$\newcommand\Hdelta{\hat\delta}$$
$$\newcommand\Hepsilon{\hat\epsilon}$$
$$\newcommand\Hvarepsilon{\hat\varepsilon}$$
$$\newcommand\Hzeta{\hat\zeta}$$
$$\newcommand\Heta{\hat\eta}$$
$$\newcommand\Htheta{\hat\theta}$$
$$\newcommand\Hvartheta{\hat\vartheta}$$
$$\newcommand\Hiota{\hat\iota}$$
$$\newcommand\Hkappa{\hat\kappa}$$
$$\newcommand\Hlambda{\hat\lambda}$$
$$\newcommand\Hmu{\hat\mu}$$
$$\newcommand\Hnu{\hat\nu}$$
$$\newcommand\Hxi{\hat\xi}$$
$$\newcommand\Hom{\hat\omicron}$$
$$\newcommand\Hpi{\hat\pi}$$
$$\newcommand\Hvarpi{\hat\varpi}$$
$$\newcommand\Hrho{\hat\rho}$$
$$\newcommand\Hvarrho{\hat\varrho}$$
$$\newcommand\Hsigma{\hat\sigma}$$
$$\newcommand\Hvarsigma{\hat\varsigma}$$
$$\newcommand\Htau{\var\tau}$$
$$\newcommand\Hupsilon{\hat\upsilon}$$
$$\newcommand\Hphi{\hat\phi}$$
$$\newcommand\Hvarphi{\hat\varphi}$$
$$\newcommand\Hchi{\hat\chi}$$
$$\newcommand\Hxhi{\hat\xhi}$$
$$\newcommand\Hpsi{\hat\psi}$$
$$\newcommand\Homega{\hat\omega}$$
$$\newcommand\HGamma{\hat\Gamma}$$
$$\newcommand\HDelta{\hat\Delta}$$
$$\newcommand\HTheta{\hat\Theta}$$
$$\newcommand\HLambda{\hat\Lambda}$$
$$\newcommand\HXi{\hat\Xi}$$
$$\newcommand\HPi{\hat\Pi}$$
$$\newcommand\HSigma{\hat\Sigma}$$
$$\newcommand\HUps{\hat\Upsilon}$$
$$\newcommand\HPhi{\hat\Phi}$$
$$\newcommand\HPsi{\hat\Psi}$$
$$\newcommand\HOmega{\hat\Omega}$$
$$\newcommand\xhat{\hat\Bx}$$
$$\newcommand\yhat{\hat\By}$$
$$\newcommand\zhat{\hat\Bz}$$
$$\newcommand\ehat{\hat\Be}$$
$$\newcommand\khat{\hat\Bk}$$
$$\newcommand\nhat{\hat\Bn}$$
$$\newcommand\rhat{\hat\Br}$$
$$\newcommand\phihat{\hat\Bphi}$$
$$\newcommand\thetahat{\hat\Btheta}$$
$$\newcommand\MA{\mathbb A}$$
$$\newcommand\MB{\mathbb B}$$
$$\newcommand\MC{\mathbb C}$$
$$\newcommand\MD{\mathbb D}$$
$$\newcommand\ME{\mathbb E}$$
$$\newcommand\MF{\mathbb F}$$
$$\newcommand\MG{\mathbb G}$$
$$\newcommand\MH{\mathbb H}$$
$$\newcommand\MI{\mathbb I}$$
$$\newcommand\MJ{\mathbb J}$$
$$\newcommand\MK{\mathbb K}$$
$$\newcommand\ML{\mathbb L}$$
$$\newcommand\MM{\mathbb M}$$
$$\newcommand\MN{\mathbb N}$$
$$\newcommand\MO{\mathbb O}$$
$$\newcommand\MP{\mathbb P}$$
$$\newcommand\MQ{\mathbb Q}$$
$$\newcommand\MR{\mathbb R}$$
$$\newcommand\MS{\mathbb S}$$
$$\newcommand\MT{\mathbb T}$$
$$\newcommand\MU{\mathbb U}$$
$$\newcommand\MV{\mathbb V}$$
$$\newcommand\MW{\mathbb W}$$
$$\newcommand\MX{\mathbb X}$$
$$\newcommand\MY{\mathbb Y}$$
$$\newcommand\MZ{\mathbb Z}$$
$$\newcommand\CA{\mathcal A}$$
$$\newcommand\CB{\mathcal B}$$
$$\newcommand\CC{\mathcal C}$$
$$\newcommand\CD{\mathcal D}$$
$$\newcommand\CE{\mathcal E}$$
$$\newcommand\CF{\mathcal F}$$
$$\newcommand\CG{\mathcal G}$$
$$\newcommand\CH{\mathcal H}$$
$$\newcommand\CI{\mathcal I}$$
$$\newcommand\CJ{\mathcal J}$$
$$\newcommand\CK{\mathcal K}$$
$$\newcommand\CL{\mathcal L}$$
$$\newcommand\CM{\mathcal M}$$
$$\newcommand\CN{\mathcal N}$$
$$\newcommand\CO{\mathcal O}$$
$$\newcommand\CP{\mathcal P}$$
$$\newcommand\CQ{\mathcal Q}$$
$$\newcommand\CR{\mathcal R}$$
$$\newcommand\CS{\mathcal S}$$
$$\newcommand\CT{\mathcal T}$$
$$\newcommand\CU{\mathcal U}$$
$$\newcommand\CV{\mathcal V}$$
$$\newcommand\CW{\mathcal W}$$
$$\newcommand\CX{\mathcal X}$$
$$\newcommand\CY{\mathcal Y}$$
$$\newcommand\CZ{\mathcal Z}$$
$$\newcommand\Fa{\mathfrak a}$$
$$\newcommand\Fb{\mathfrak b}$$
$$\newcommand\Fc{\mathfrak c}$$
$$\newcommand\Fd{\mathfrak d}$$
$$\newcommand\Fe{\mathfrak e}$$
$$\newcommand\Ff{\mathfrak f}$$
$$\newcommand\Fg{\mathfrak g}$$
$$\newcommand\Fh{\mathfrak h}$$
$$\newcommand\Fi{\mathfrak i}$$
$$\newcommand\Fj{\mathfrak j}$$
$$\newcommand\Fk{\mathfrak k}$$
$$\newcommand\Fl{\mathfrak l}$$
$$\newcommand\Fm{\mathfrak m}$$
$$\newcommand\Fn{\mathfrak n}$$
$$\newcommand\Fo{\mathfrak o}$$
$$\newcommand\Fp{\mathfrak p}$$
$$\newcommand\Fq{\mathfrak q}$$
$$\newcommand\Fr{\mathfrak r}$$
$$\newcommand\Fs{\mathfrak s}$$
$$\newcommand\Ft{\mathfrak t}$$
$$\newcommand\Fu{\mathfrak u}$$
$$\newcommand\Fv{\mathfrak v}$$
$$\newcommand\Fw{\mathfrak w}$$
$$\newcommand\Fx{\mathfrak x}$$
$$\newcommand\Fy{\mathfrak y}$$
$$\newcommand\Fz{\mathfrak z}$$
$$\newcommand\FA{\mathfrak A}$$
$$\newcommand\FB{\mathfrak B}$$
$$\newcommand\FC{\mathfrak C}$$
$$\newcommand\FD{\mathfrak D}$$
$$\newcommand\FE{\mathfrak E}$$
$$\newcommand\FF{\mathfrak F}$$
$$\newcommand\FG{\mathfrak G}$$
$$\newcommand\FH{\mathfrak H}$$
$$\newcommand\FI{\mathfrak I}$$
$$\newcommand\FJ{\mathfrak J}$$
$$\newcommand\FK{\mathfrak K}$$
$$\newcommand\FL{\mathfrak L}$$
$$\newcommand\FM{\mathfrak M}$$
$$\newcommand\FN{\mathfrak N}$$
$$\newcommand\FO{\mathfrak O}$$
$$\newcommand\FP{\mathfrak P}$$
$$\newcommand\FQ{\mathfrak Q}$$
$$\newcommand\FR{\mathfrak R}$$
$$\newcommand\FS{\mathfrak S}$$
$$\newcommand\FT{\mathfrak T}$$
$$\newcommand\FU{\mathfrak U}$$
$$\newcommand\FV{\mathfrak V}$$
$$\newcommand\FW{\mathfrak W}$$
$$\newcommand\FX{\mathfrak X}$$
$$\newcommand\FY{\mathfrak Y}$$
$$\newcommand\FZ{\mathfrak Z}$$
$$\newcommand\Da{\dot a}$$
$$\newcommand\Db{\dot b}$$
$$\newcommand\Dc{\dot c}$$
$$\newcommand\Dd{\dot d}$$
$$\newcommand\De{\dot e}$$
$$\newcommand\Df{\dot f}$$
$$\newcommand\Dg{\dot g}$$
$$\newcommand\Dh{\dot h}$$
$$\newcommand\Di{\dot \imath}$$
$$\newcommand\Dj{\dot \jmath}$$
$$\newcommand\Dk{\dot k}$$
$$\newcommand\Dl{\dot l}$$
$$\newcommand\Dm{\dot m}$$
$$\newcommand\Dn{\dot n}$$
$$\newcommand\Do{\dot o}$$
$$\newcommand\Dp{\dot p}$$
$$\newcommand\Dq{\dot q}$$
$$\newcommand\Dr{\dot r}$$
$$\newcommand\Ds{\dot s}$$
$$\newcommand\Dt{\dot t}$$
$$\newcommand\Du{\dot u}$$
$$\newcommand\Dv{\dot v}$$
$$\newcommand\Dw{\dot w}$$
$$\newcommand\Dx{\dot x}$$
$$\newcommand\Dy{\dot y}$$
$$\newcommand\Dz{\dot z}$$
$$\newcommand\DA{\dot A}$$
$$\newcommand\DB{\dot B}$$
$$\newcommand\DC{\dot C}$$
$$\newcommand\DD{\dot D}$$
$$\newcommand\DE{\dot E}$$
$$\newcommand\DF{\dot F}$$
$$\newcommand\DG{\dot G}$$
$$\newcommand\DH{\dot H}$$
$$\newcommand\DI{\dot I}$$
$$\newcommand\DJ{\dot J}$$
$$\newcommand\DK{\dot K}$$
$$\newcommand\DL{\dot L}$$
$$\newcommand\DM{\dot M}$$
$$\newcommand\DN{\dot N}$$
$$\newcommand\DO{\dot O}$$
$$\newcommand\DP{\dot P}$$
$$\newcommand\DQ{\dot Q}$$
$$\newcommand\DR{\dot R}$$
$$\newcommand\DS{\dot S}$$
$$\newcommand\DT{\dot T}$$
$$\newcommand\DU{\dot U}$$
$$\newcommand\DV{\dot V}$$
$$\newcommand\DW{\dot W}$$
$$\newcommand\DX{\dot X}$$
$$\newcommand\DY{\dot Y}$$
$$\newcommand\DZ{\dot Z}$$
$$\newcommand\Dalpha ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[1], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Dbeta ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[2], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Dgamma ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[3], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Ddelta ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[4], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Depsilon ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[5], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Dvarepsilon ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[6], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Dzeta ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[7], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Deta ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[8], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Dtheta ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[9], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Dvartheta ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[10], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Diota ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[11], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Dkappa ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[12], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Dlambda ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[13], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Dmu{\dot\mu}$$
$$\newcommand\Dnu{\dot\nu}$$
$$\newcommand\Dxi{\dot\xi}$$
$$\newcommand\Dom{\dot\omicron}$$
$$\newcommand\Dpi{\dot\pi}$$
$$\newcommand\Dvarpi ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[14], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Drho{\dot\rho}$$
$$\newcommand\Dvarrho{\dot\varrho}$$
$$\newcommand\Dsigma{\dot\sigma}$$
$$\newcommand\Dvarsigma{\dot\varsigma}$$
$$\newcommand\Dtau{\var\tau}$$
$$\newcommand\Dupsilon{\dot\upsilon}$$
$$\newcommand\Dphi{\dot\phi}$$
$$\newcommand\Dvarphi{\dot\varphi}$$
$$\newcommand\Dchi{\dot\chi}$$
$$\newcommand\Dpsi{\dot\psi}$$
$$\newcommand\Domega{\dot\omega}$$
$$\newcommand\DGamma ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[15], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\DDelta ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[16], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\DTheta ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[17], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\DLambda{\dot\Lambda}$$
$$\newcommand\DXi{\dot\Xi}$$
$$\newcommand\DPi{\dot\Pi}$$
$$\newcommand\DSigma{\dot\Sigma}$$
$$\newcommand\DUps{\dot\Upsilon}$$
$$\newcommand\DPhi{\dot\Phi}$$
$$\newcommand\DPsi{\dot\Psi}$$
$$\newcommand\DOmega{\dot\Omega}$$
$$\newcommand\Va{\vec a}$$
$$\newcommand\Vb{\vec b}$$
$$\newcommand\Vc{\vec c}$$
$$\newcommand\Vd{\vec d}$$
$$\newcommand\Ve{\vec e}$$
$$\newcommand\Vf{\vec f}$$
$$\newcommand\Vg{\vec g}$$
$$\newcommand\Vh{\vec h}$$
$$\newcommand\Vi{\vec \imath}$$
$$\newcommand\Vj{\vec \jmath}$$
$$\newcommand\Vk{\vec k}$$
$$\newcommand\Vl{\vec l}$$
$$\newcommand\Vm{\vec m}$$
$$\newcommand\Vn{\vec n}$$
$$\newcommand\Vo{\vec o}$$
$$\newcommand\Vp{\vec p}$$
$$\newcommand\Vq{\vec q}$$
$$\newcommand\Vr{\vec r}$$
$$\newcommand\Vs{\vec s}$$
$$\newcommand\Vt{\vec t}$$
$$\newcommand\Vu{\vec u}$$
$$\newcommand\Vv{\vec v}$$
$$\newcommand\Vw{\vec w}$$
$$\newcommand\Vx{\vec x}$$
$$\newcommand\Vy{\vec y}$$
$$\newcommand\Vz{\vec z}$$
$$\newcommand\VA{\vec A}$$
$$\newcommand\VB{\vec B}$$
$$\newcommand\VC{\vec C}$$
$$\newcommand\VD{\vec D}$$
$$\newcommand\VE{\vec E}$$
$$\newcommand\VF{\vec F}$$
$$\newcommand\VG{\vec G}$$
$$\newcommand\VH{\vec H}$$
$$\newcommand\VI{\vec I}$$
$$\newcommand\VJ{\vec J}$$
$$\newcommand\VK{\vec K}$$
$$\newcommand\VL{\vec L}$$
$$\newcommand\VM{\vec M}$$
$$\newcommand\VN{\vec N}$$
$$\newcommand\VO{\vec O}$$
$$\newcommand\VP{\vec P}$$
$$\newcommand\VQ{\vec Q}$$
$$\newcommand\VR{\vec R}$$
$$\newcommand\VS{\vec S}$$
$$\newcommand\VT{\vec T}$$
$$\newcommand\VU{\vec U}$$
$$\newcommand\VV{\vec V}$$
$$\newcommand\VW{\vec W}$$
$$\newcommand\VX{\vec X}$$
$$\newcommand\VY{\vec Y}$$
$$\newcommand\VZ{\vec Z}$$
$$\newcommand\Valpha{\vec\alpha}$$
$$\newcommand\Vbeta{\vec\beta}$$
$$\newcommand\Vgamma{\vec\gamma}$$
$$\newcommand\Vdelta{\vec\delta}$$
$$\newcommand\Vepsilon{\vec\epsilon}$$
$$\newcommand\Vvarepsilon{\vec\varepsilon}$$
$$\newcommand\Vzeta{\vec\zeta}$$
$$\newcommand\Veta{\vec\eta}$$
$$\newcommand\Vtheta{\vec\theta}$$
$$\newcommand\Vvartheta{\vec\vartheta}$$
$$\newcommand\Viota{\vec\iota}$$
$$\newcommand\Vkappa{\vec\kappa}$$
$$\newcommand\Vlambda{\vec\lambda}$$
$$\newcommand\Vmu ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[18], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Vnu ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[19], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Vxi ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[20], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Vom ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[21], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Vpi ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[22], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Vvarpi ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[23], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Vrho ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[24], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Vvarrho ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[25], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Vsigma ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[26], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Vvarsigma ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[27], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Vtau ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[28], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Vupsilon ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[29], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Vphi ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[30], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Vvarphi ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[31], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Vchi ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[32], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Vpsi ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[33], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\Vomega ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[34], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\VGamma ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[35], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\VDelta ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/p[1]/span[36], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\VTheta{\vec\Theta}$$
$$\newcommand\VLambda{\vec\Lambda}$$
$$\newcommand\VXi{\vec\Xi}$$
$$\newcommand\VPi{\vec\Pi}$$
$$\newcommand\VSigma{\vec\Sigma}$$
$$\newcommand\VUps{\vec\Upsilon}$$
$$\newcommand\VPhi{\vec\Phi}$$
$$\newcommand\VPsi{\vec\Psi}$$
$$\newcommand\VOmega{\vec\Omega}$$
$$\newcommand\BA{\mib A}$$
$$\newcommand\BB{\mib B}$$
$$\newcommand\BC{\mib C}$$
$$\newcommand\BD{\mib D}$$
$$\newcommand\BE{\mib E}$$
$$\newcommand\BF{\mib F}$$
$$\newcommand\BG{\mib G}$$
$$\newcommand\BH{\mib H}$$
$$\newcommand\BI{\mib I}}$$
$$\newcommand\BJ{\mib J}$$
$$\newcommand\BK{\mib K}$$
$$\newcommand\BL{\mib L}$$
$$\newcommand\BM{\mib M}$$
$$\newcommand\BN{\mib N}$$
$$\newcommand\BO{\mib O}$$
$$\newcommand\BP{\mib P}$$
$$\newcommand\BQ{\mib Q}$$
$$\newcommand\BR{\mib R}$$
$$\newcommand\BS{\mib S}$$
$$\newcommand\BT{\mib T}$$
$$\newcommand\BU{\mib U}$$
$$\newcommand\BV{\mib V}$$
$$\newcommand\BW{\mib W}$$
$$\newcommand\BX{\mib X}$$
$$\newcommand\BY{\mib Y}$$
$$\newcommand\BZ{\mib Z}$$
$$\newcommand\Ba{\mib a}$$
$$\newcommand\Bb{\mib b}$$
$$\newcommand\Bc{\mib c}$$
$$\newcommand\Bd{\mib d}$$
$$\newcommand\Be{\mib e}$$
$$\newcommand\Bf{\mib f}$$
$$\newcommand\Bg{\mib g}$$
$$\newcommand\Bh{\mib h}$$
$$\newcommand\Bi{\mib i}$$
$$\newcommand\Bj{\mib j}$$
$$\newcommand\Bk{\mib k}$$
$$\newcommand\Bl{\mib l}$$
$$\newcommand\Bm{\mib m}$$
$$\newcommand\Bn{\mib n}$$
$$\newcommand\Bo{\mib o}$$
$$\newcommand\Bp{\mib p}$$
$$\newcommand\Bq{\mib q}$$
$$\newcommand\Br{\mib r}$$
$$\newcommand\Bs{\mib s}$$
$$\newcommand\Bt{\mib t}$$
$$\newcommand\Bu{\mib u}$$
$$\newcommand\Bv{\mib v}$$
$$\newcommand\Bw{\mib w}$$
$$\newcommand\Bx{\mib x}$$
$$\newcommand\By{\mib y}$$
$$\newcommand\Bz{\mib z}$$\)
$$\newcommand\vrh{\varrho}$$
$$\newcommand\vsig{\varsigma}$$
$$\newcommand\ups{\upsilon}$$
$$\newcommand\eps{\epsilon}$$
$$\newcommand\ve{\varepsilon}$$
$$\newcommand\vth{\vartheta}$$
$$\newcommand\vphi{\varphi}$$
$$\newcommand\xhi{\chi}$$
$$\newcommand\Ups{\Upsilon}$$
$$\newcommand\Balpha{\mib\alpha}$$
$$\newcommand\Bbeta{\mib\beta}$$
$$\newcommand\Bgamma{\mib\gamma}$$
$$\newcommand\Bdelta{\mib\delta}$$
$$\newcommand\Beps{\mib\epsilon}$$
$$\newcommand\Bve{\mib\varepsilon}$$
$$\newcommand\Bzeta{\mib\zeta}$$
$$\newcommand\Beta{\mib\eta}$$
$$\newcommand\Btheta{\mib\theta}$$
$$\newcommand\Bvth{\mib\vartheta}$$
$$\newcommand\Biota{\mib\iota}$$
$$\newcommand\Bkappa{\mib\kappa}$$
$$\newcommand\Blambda{\mib\lambda}$$
$$\newcommand\Bmu{\mib\mu}$$
$$\newcommand\Bnu{\mib\nu}$$
$$\newcommand\Bxi{\mib\xi}$$
$$\newcommand\Bom{\mib\omicron}$$
$$\newcommand\Bpi{\mib\pi}$$
$$\newcommand\Bvarpi{\mib\varpi}$$
$$\newcommand\Brho{\mib\rho}$$
$$\newcommand\Bvrh{\mib\varrho}$$
$$\newcommand\Bsigma{\mib\sigma}$$
$$\newcommand\Bvsig{\mib\varsigma}$$
$$\newcommand\Btau{\mib\tau}$$
$$\newcommand\Bups{\mib\upsilon}$$
$$\newcommand\Bphi{\mib\phi}$$
$$\newcommand\Bvphi{\mib\vphi}$$
$$\newcommand\Bchi{\mib\chi}$$
$$\newcommand\Bpsi{\mib\psi}$$
$$\newcommand\Bomega{\mib\omega}$$
$$\newcommand\BGamma{\mib\Gamma}$$
$$\newcommand\BDelta{\mib\Delta}$$
$$\newcommand\BTheta{\mib\Theta}$$
$$\newcommand\BLambda{\mib\Lambda}$$
$$\newcommand\BXi{\mib\Xi}$$
$$\newcommand\BPi{\mib\Pi}$$
$$\newcommand\BSigma{\mib\Sigma}$$
$$\newcommand\BUps{\mib\Upsilon}$$
$$\newcommand\BPhi{\mib\Phi}$$
$$\newcommand\BPsi{\mib\Psi}$$
$$\newcommand\BOmega{\mib\Omega}$$
$$\newcommand\Bxhi{\raise.35ex\hbox{\Bchi}}$$
$$\newcommand\RGamma{ \Gamma}$$
$$\newcommand\RDelta{ \Delta}$$
$$\newcommand\RTheta{ \Theta}$$
$$\newcommand\RLambda{ \Lambda}$$
$$\newcommand\RXi{ \Xi}$$
$$\newcommand\RPi{ \Pi}$$
$$\newcommand\RSigma{ \Sigma}$$
$$\newcommand\RUps{ \Upsilon}$$
$$\newcommand\RPhi{ \Phi}$$
$$\newcommand\RPsi{ \Psi}$$
$$\newcommand\ROmega{ \Omega}$$
$$\newcommand\RA{ A}$$
$$\newcommand\RB{ B}$$
$$\newcommand\RC{ C}$$
$$\newcommand\RD{ D}$$
$$\newcommand\RE{ E}$$
$$\newcommand\RF{ F}$$
$$\newcommand\RG{ G}$$
$$\newcommand\RH{ H}$$
$$\newcommand\RI{ I}$$
$$\newcommand\RJ{ J}$$
$$\newcommand\RK{ K}$$
$$\newcommand\RL{ L}$$
$$\newcommand { M}$$
$$\newcommand\RN{ N}$$
$$\newcommand\RO{ O}$$
$$\newcommand\RP{ P}$$
$$\newcommand\RQ{ Q}$$
$$\newcommand\RR{ R}$$
$$\newcommand\RS{ S}$$
$$\newcommand\RT{ T}$$
$$\newcommand\RU{ U}$$
$$\newcommand\RV{ V}$$
$$\newcommand\RW{ W}$$
$$\newcommand\RX{ X}$$
$$\newcommand\RY{ Y}$$
$$\newcommand\RZ{ Z}$$
$$\newcommand\Ra{ a}$$
$$\newcommand\Rb{ b}$$
$$\newcommand\Rc{ c}$$
$$\newcommand\Rd{ d}$$
$$\newcommand\Re{ e}$$
$$\newcommand\Rf{ f}$$
$$\newcommand\Rg{ g}$$
$$\newcommand\Rh{ h}$$
$$\newcommand\Ri{ i}$$
$$\newcommand\Rj{ j}$$
$$\newcommand\Rk{ k}$$
$$\newcommand\Rl{ l}$$
$$\newcommand { m}$$
$$\newcommand\Rn{ n}$$
$$\newcommand\Ro{ o}$$
$$\newcommand\Rp{ p}$$
$$\newcommand\Rq{ q}$$
$$\newcommand\Rr{ r}$$
$$\newcommand\Rs{ s}$$
$$\newcommand\Rt{ t}$$
$$\newcommand\Ru{ u}$$
$$\newcommand\Rv{ v}$$
$$\newcommand\Rw{ w}$$
$$\newcommand\Rx{ x}$$
$$\newcommand\Ry{ y}$$
$$\newcommand\Rz{ z}$$
$$\newcommand\BBA{\boldsymbol\RA}$$
$$\newcommand\BBB{\boldsymbol\RB}$$
$$\newcommand\BBC{\boldsymbol\RC}$$
$$\newcommand\BBD{\boldsymbol\RD}$$
$$\newcommand\BBE{\boldsymbol\RE}$$
$$\newcommand\BBF{\boldsymbol\RF}$$
$$\newcommand\BBG{\boldsymbol\RG}$$
$$\newcommand\BBH{\boldsymbol\RH}$$
$$\newcommand\BBI{\boldsymbol\RI}$$
$$\newcommand\BBJ{\boldsymbol\RJ}$$
$$\newcommand\BBK{\boldsymbol\RK}$$
$$\newcommand\BBL{\boldsymbol\RL}$$
$$\newcommand\BBM{\boldsymbol }$$
$$\newcommand\BBN{\boldsymbol\RN}$$
$$\newcommand\BBO{\boldsymbol\RO}$$
$$\newcommand\BBP{\boldsymbol\RP}$$
$$\newcommand\BBQ{\boldsymbol\RQ}$$
$$\newcommand\BBR{\boldsymbol\RR}$$
$$\newcommand\BBS{\boldsymbol\RS}$$
$$\newcommand\BBT{\boldsymbol\RT}$$
$$\newcommand\BBU{\boldsymbol\RU}$$
$$\newcommand\BBV{\boldsymbol\RV}$$
$$\newcommand\BBW{\boldsymbol\RW}$$
$$\newcommand\BBX{\boldsymbol\RX}$$
$$\newcommand\BBY{\boldsymbol\RY}$$
$$\newcommand\BBZ{\boldsymbol\RZ}$$
$$\newcommand\BBa{\boldsymbol\Ra}$$
$$\newcommand\BBb{\boldsymbol\Rb}$$
$$\newcommand\BBc{\boldsymbol\Rc}$$
$$\newcommand\BBd{\boldsymbol\Rd}$$
$$\newcommand\BBe{\boldsymbol\Re}$$
$$\newcommand\BBf{\boldsymbol\Rf}$$
$$\newcommand\BBg{\boldsymbol\Rg}$$
$$\newcommand\BBh{\boldsymbol\Rh}\}$$
$$\newcommand\BBi{\boldsymbol\Ri}$$
$$\newcommand\BBj{\boldsymbol\Rj}$$
$$\newcommand\BBk{\boldsymbol\Rk}$$
$$\newcommand\BBl{boldsymbol\Rl}$$
$$\newcommand\BBm{\boldsymbol }$$
$$\newcommand\BBn{\boldsymbol\Rn}$$
$$\newcommand\BBo{\boldsymbol\Ro}$$
$$\newcommand\BBp{\boldsymbol\Rp}$$
$$\newcommand\BBq{\boldsymbol\Rq}$$
$$\newcommand\BBr{\boldsymbol\Rr}$$
$$\newcommand\BBs{\boldsymbol\Rs}$$
$$\newcommand\BBt{\boldsymbol\Rt}$$
$$\newcommand\BBu{\boldsymbol\Ru}$$
$$\newcommand\BBv{\boldsymbol\Rv}$$
$$\newcommand\BBw{\boldsymbol\Rw}$$
$$\newcommand\BBx{\boldsymbol\Rx}$$
$$\newcommand\BBy{\boldsymbol\Ry}$$
$$\newcommand\BBz{\boldsymbol\Rz}$$
$$\newcommand\tcb{\textcolor{blue}$$
$$\newcommand\tcr{\textcolor{red}$$
$$\newcommand\bnabla{\boldsymbol{\nabla}}$$
$$\newcommand\Bell{\boldsymbol\ell}$$
$$\newcommand\dbar{\,{\mathchar'26\mkern-12mu d}}$$
$$\newcommand\ns{^\vphantom{*}}$$
$$\newcommand\uar{\uparrow}$$
$$\newcommand\dar{\downarrow}$$
$$\newcommand\impi{\int\limits_{-\infty}^{\infty}\!\!}$$
$$\newcommand\izpi{\int\limits_{0}^{\infty}\!\!}$$
$$\newcommand\etc{\it etc.\/}$$
$$\newcommand\etal{\it et al.\/}$$
$$\newcommand\opcit{\it op. cit.\/}$$
$$\newcommand\ie{\it i.e.\/}$$
$$\newcommand\Ie{\it I.e.\/}$$
$$\newcommand\viz{\it viz.\/}$$
$$\newcommand\eg{\it e.g.\/}$$
$$\newcommand\Eg{\it E.g.\/}$$
$$\newcommand\dbar{\,{\mathchar'26\mkern-12mu d}}$$
$$\def\sss#1{\scriptscriptstyle #1}$$
$$\def\ss#1{\scriptstyle #1}$$
$$\def\ssr#1{\scriptstyle #1}$$
$$\def\ssf#1{\scriptstyle #1}$$
$$\newcommand\NA{N_{\ssr{\!A}}}$$
$$\newcommand\lala{\langle\!\langle}$$
$$\newcommand\rara{\rangle\!\rangle}$$
$$\newcommand\blan{\big\langle}$$
$$\newcommand\bran{\big\rangle}$$
$$\newcommand\Blan{\Big\langle}$$
$$\newcommand\Bran{\Big\rangle}$$
$$\newcommand\intl{\int\limits}$$
$$\newcommand\half{\frac{1}{2}}$$
$$\newcommand\third{\frac{1}{3}}$$
$$\newcommand\fourth{\frac{1}{4}}$$
$$\newcommand\eighth{\frac{1}{8}}$$
$$\newcommand\uar{\uparrow}$$
$$\newcommand\dar{\downarrow}$$
$$\newcommand\undertext#1{\underline{\hbox{#1}}}$$
$$\newcommand\Tra{\mathop{\textsf{Tr}}\,}$$
$$\newcommand\det{\mathop{\textsf{det}}\,}$$
$$\def\tket#1{| #1 \rangle}$$
$$\def\tbra#1{\langle #1|}$$
$$\def\tbraket#1#2{\langle #1 | #2 \rangle}$$
$$\def\texpect#1#2#3{\langle #1 | #2 | #3 \rangle}$$
$$\def\sket#1{| \, #1 \, \rangle}$$
$$\def\sbra#1{\langle \, #1 \, |}$$
$$\def\sbraket#1#2{\langle \, #1 \, | \, #2 \, \rangle}$$
$$\def\sexpect#1#2#3{\langle \, #1 \, | \, #2 \, | \, #3 \, \rangle}$$
$$\def\ket#1{\big| \, #1\, \big\rangle}$$
$$\def\bra#1{\big\langle \, #1 \, \big|}$$
$$\def\braket#1#2{\big\langle \, #1\, \big| \,#2 \,\big\rangle}$$
$$\def\expect#1#2#3{\big\langle\, #1\, \big|\, #2\, \big| \,#3\, \big\rangle}$$
$$\newcommand\pz{\partial}$$
$$\newcommand\pzb{\bar{\partial}}$$
$$\newcommand\svph{\vphantom{\int}}$$
$$\newcommand\vph{\vphantom{\sum_i}}$$
$$\newcommand\bvph{\vphantom{\sum_N^N}}$$
$$\newcommand\nd{^{\vphantom{\dagger}}}$$
$$\newcommand\ns{^{\vphantom{*}}}$$
$$\newcommand\yd{^\dagger}$$
$$\newcommand\zb{\bar z}$$
$$\newcommand\zdot{\dot z}$$
$$\newcommand\zbdot{\dot{\bar z}}$$
$$\newcommand\kB{k_{\sss{B}}}$$
$$\newcommand\kT{k_{\sss{B}}T}$$
$$\newcommand\gtau{g_\tau}$$
$$\newcommand\Htil{\tilde H}$$
$$\newcommand\pairo{(\phi\nd_0,J\nd_0)}$$
$$\newcommand\pairm{(\phi\nd_0,J)}$$
$$\newcommand\pairob{(\Bphi\nd_0,\BJ\nd_0)}$$
$$\newcommand\pairmb{(\Bphi\nd_0,\BJ)}$$
$$\newcommand\pair{(\phi,J)}$$
$$\newcommand\Hz{H\nd_0}$$
$$\newcommand\Ho{H\nd_1}$$
$$\newcommand\Htz{\Htil\nd_0}$$
$$\newcommand\Hto{\Htil\nd_1}$$
$$\newcommand\oc{\omega_\Rc}$$

$$\newcommand \gtwid{\approx}$$

$$\newcommand\index{\textsf{ind}}$$
$$\newcommand\csch{\,{ csch\,}}$$
$$\newcommand\ctnh{\,{ ctnh\,}}$$
$$\newcommand\ctn{\,{ ctn\,}}$$
$$\newcommand\sgn{\,{ sgn\,}}$$
$$\def\tmapright#1{\xrightarrow \limits^{#1}}$$
$$\def\bmapright#1{\xrightarrow\limits_{#1}}$$
$$\newcommand\hfb{\hfill\break}$$
$$\newcommand\Rep{\textsf{Re}\,}$$
$$\newcommand\Imp{\textsf{Im}\,}$$
$$\newcommand\ncdot{\!\cdot\!}$$
$$\def\tmapright#1{ \smash{\mathop{\hbox to 35pt{\rightarrowfill}}\limits^{#1}}\ }$$
$$\def\bmapright#1{ \smash{\mathop{\hbox to 35pt{\rightarrowfill}}\limits_{#1}}\ }$$
$$\newcommand\bsqcap{\mbox{\boldmath{\sqcap}}}$$

$$\def\pabc#1#2#3{\left({\pz #1\over\pz #2}\right)\ns_{\!\!#3}}$$
$$\def\spabc#1#2#3{\big({\pz #1\over\pz #2}\big)\ns_{\!#3}}$$
$$\def\qabc#1#2#3{\pz^2\! #1\over\pz #2\,\pz #3}$$
$$\def\rabc#1#2#3#4{(\pz #1,\pz #2)\over (\pz #3,\pz #4)}$$
$$\newcommand\subA{\ns_\ssr{A}}$$
$$\newcommand\subB{\ns_\ssr{B}}$$
$$\newcommand\subC{\ns_\ssr{C}}$$
$$\newcommand\subD{\ns_\ssr{D}}$$
$$\newcommand\subAB{\ns_\ssr{AB}}$$
$$\newcommand\subBC{\ns_\ssr{BC}}$$
$$\newcommand\subCD{\ns_\ssr{CD}}$$
$$\newcommand\subDA{\ns_\ssr{DA}}$$
$$\def\lmapright#1{\ \ \smash{\mathop{\hbox to 55pt{\rightarrowfill}}\limits^{#1}}\ \ }$$
$$\def\enth#1{\RDelta {\textsf H}^0_\Rf[{ #1}]}$$
\newcommand\longrightleftharpoons{ \mathop{\vcenter{\hbox{\ooalign{\raise1pt\hbox{\longrightharpoonup\joinrel}\crcr \lower1pt\hbox{\longleftharpoondown\joinrel}}}}}}
$$\newcommand\longrightharpoonup{\relbar\joinrel\rightharpoonup}$$
$$\newcommand\longleftharpoondown{\leftharpoondown\joinrel\relbar}$$
$$\newcommand\cds{\,\bullet\,}$$
$$\newcommand\ccs{\,\circ\,}$$
$$\newcommand\nsub{_{\vphantom{\dagger}}}$$
$$\newcommand\rhohat{\hat\rho}$$
$$\newcommand\vrhhat{\hat\vrh}$$
$$\newcommand\impi{\int\limits_{-\infty}^\infty\!\!\!}$$
$$\newcommand\brangle{\big\rangle}$$
$$\newcommand\blangle{\big\langle}$$
$$\newcommand\vet{\tilde\ve}$$
$$\newcommand\zbar{\bar z}$$
$$\newcommand\ftil{\tilde f}$$
$$\newcommand\XBE{\RXi\ns_\ssr{BE}}$$
$$\newcommand\XFD{\RXi\ns_\ssr{FD}}$$
$$\newcommand\OBE{\Omega\ns_\ssr{BE}}$$
$$\newcommand\OFD{\Omega\ns_\ssr{FD}}$$
$$\newcommand\veF{\ve\ns_\RF}$$
$$\newcommand\kF{k\ns_\RF}$$
$$\newcommand\kFu{k\ns_{\RF\uar}}$$
$$\newcommand\muB{\mu\ns_\ssr{B}}$$
$$\newcommand\mutB{\tilde\mu}\ns_\ssr{B}$$
$$\newcommand\xoN{\Bx\ns_1\,,\,\ldots\,,\,\Bx\ns_N}$$
$$\newcommand\rok{\Br\ns_1\,,\,\ldots\,,\,\Br\ns_k}$$
$$\newcommand\xhiOZ{\xhi^\ssr{OZ}}$$
$$\newcommand\xhihOZ ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/span[1], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\jhz{\HJ(0)}$$
$$\newcommand\nda{\nd_\alpha}$$
$$\newcommand\ndap{\nd_{\alpha'}}$$
$$\newcommand\labar ParseError: invalid DekiScript (click for details) Callstack: at (Template:MathJaxArovas), /content/body/div/span[2], line 1, column 1 at template() at (Bookshelves/Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics/Book:_Thermodynamics_and_Statistical_Mechanics_(Arovas)/02:_Thermodynamics/2.07:_Thermodynamic_Potentials), /content/body/p[1]/span, line 1, column 23 $$
$$\newcommand\msa{m\ns_\ssr{A}}$$
$$\newcommand\msb{m\ns_\ssr{B}}$$
$$\newcommand\mss{m\ns_\Rs}$$
$$\newcommand\HBx{\hat\Bx}$$
$$\newcommand\HBy{\hat\By}$$
$$\newcommand\HBz{\hat\Bz}$$
$$\newcommand\thm{\theta\ns_m}$$
$$\newcommand\thp{\theta\ns_\phi}$$
$$\newcommand\mtil{\widetilde m}$$
$$\newcommand\phitil{\widetilde\phi}$$
$$\newcommand\delf{\delta\! f}$$
$$\newcommand\coll{\bigg({\pz f\over\pz t}\bigg)\nd_{\! coll}}$$
$$\newcommand\stre{\bigg({\pz f\over\pz t}\bigg)\nd_{\! str}}$$
$$\newcommand\idrp{\int\!\!{d^3\!r\,d^3\!p\over h^3}\>}$$
$$\newcommand\vbar{\bar v}$$
$$\newcommand\BCE{\mbox{\boldmath{\CE}}\!}$$
$$\newcommand\BCR{\mbox{\boldmath{\CR}}\!}$$
$$\newcommand\gla{g\nd_{\RLambda\nd}}$$
$$\newcommand\TA{T\ns_\ssr{A}}$$
$$\newcommand\TB{T\ns_\ssr{B}}$$
$$\newcommand\ncdot{\!\cdot\!}$$
$$\newcommand\NS{N\ns_{\textsf S}}$$

Thermodynamic systems may do work on their environments. Under certain constraints, the work done may be bounded from above by the change in an appropriately defined thermodynamic potential.

## Energy $$E$$

Suppose we wish to create a thermodynamic system from scratch. Let’s imagine that we create it from scratch in a thermally insulated box of volume $$V$$. The work we must to to assemble the system is then $$\CW=E$$ . After we bring all the constituent particles together, pulling them in from infinity (say), the system will have total energy $$E$$. After we finish, the system may not be in thermal equilibrium. Spontaneous processes will then occur so as to maximize the system’s entropy, but the internal energy remains at $$E$$.

We have, from the First Law, $$dE=\dbar Q-\dbar W$$  and combining this with the Second Law in the form $$\dbar Q \le T\,dS$$ yields $dE\le T\,dS - \dbar W\quad. \label{dEeqn}$ Rearranging terms, we have $$\dbar W\le T\,dS-dE$$ . Hence, the work done by a thermodynamic system under conditions of constant entropy is bounded above by $$-dE$$, and the maximum $$\dbar W$$ is achieved for a reversible process. It is sometimes useful to define the quantity $\dbar W\ns_{free}=\dbar W- p\,dV\ ,$ which is the differential work done by the system other than that required to change its volume. Then we have $\dbar W\ns_{free}\le T\,dS - p\,dV - dE \quad,$ and we conclude for systems at fixed $$(S,V)$$ that $$\dbar W_{free}\le - dE$$.

In equilibrium, the equality in Equation [dEeqn] holds, and for single component systems where $$\dbar W = p\,dV - \mu\,dN$$ we have $$E=E(S,V,N)$$ with $T=\pabc{E}{S}{V,N} \qquad,\qquad -p=\pabc{E}{V}{S,N} \qquad,\qquad \mu=\pabc{E}{N}{S,V}\quad .$ These expressions are easily generalized to multicomponent systems, magnetic systems,

Now consider a single component system at fixed $$(S,V,N)$$. We conclude that $$dE\le 0$$ , which says that spontaneous processes in a system with $$dS=dV=dN=0$$ always lead to a reduction in the internal energy $$E$$. Therefore, spontaneous processes drive the internal energy $$E$$ to a minimum in systems at fixed $$(S,V,N)$$.

## Helmholtz free energy $$F$$

Suppose that when we spontaneously create our system while it is in constant contact with a thermal reservoir at temperature $$T$$. Then as we create our system, it will absorb heat from the reservoir. Therefore, we don’t have to supply the full internal energy $$E$$, but rather only $$E-Q$$, since the system receives heat energy $$Q$$ from the reservoir. In other words, we must perform work $$\CW=E-TS$$ to create our system, if it is constantly in equilibrium at temperature $$T$$. The quantity $$E-TS$$ is known as the Helmholtz free energy, $$F$$, which is related to the energy $$E$$ by a Legendre transformation, $F=E-TS\ .$ The general properties of Legendre transformations are discussed in Appendix II, §16.

Again invoking the Second Law, we have $dF\le -S\,dT-\dbar W\quad. \label{dFeqn}$ Rearranging terms, we have $$\dbar W\le -S\,dT - dF$$ , which says that the work done by a thermodynamic system under conditions of constant temperature is bounded above by $$-dF$$, and the maximum $$\dbar W$$ is achieved for a reversible process. We also have the general result $\dbar W\ns_{free}\le -S\,dT - p\,dV - dF \ ,$ and we conclude, for systems at fixed $$(T,V)$$, that $$\dbar W_{free}\le -dF$$.

Under equilibrium conditions, the equality in Equation [dFeqn] holds, and for single component systems where $$\dbar W = p\,dV-\mu\,dN$$ we have $$dF=-S\,dT - p\,dV + \mu\,dN$$ . This says that $$F=F(T,V,N)$$ with $-S=\pabc{F}{T}{V,N} \qquad,\qquad -p=\pabc{F}{V}{T,N} \qquad,\qquad \mu=\pabc{F}{N}{T,V}\quad .$ For spontaneous processes, $$dF \le -S\,dT - p\,dV + \mu\,dN$$ says that spontaneous processes drive the Helmholtz free energy $$F$$ to a minimum in systems at fixed $$(T,V,N)$$.

## Enthalpy $$\CH$$

Suppose that when we spontaneously create our system while it is thermally insulated, but in constant mechanical contact with a ‘volume bath’ at pressure $$p$$. For example, we could create our system inside a thermally insulated chamber with one movable wall where the external pressure is fixed at $$p$$. Thus, when creating the system, in addition to the system’s internal energy $$E$$, we must also perform work $$pV$$ in order to make room for it. In other words, we must perform work $$\CW=E+pV$$. The quantity $$E+pV$$ is known as the enthalpy, $$\CH$$. (We use the calligraphic font for $$\CH$$ for enthalpy to avoid confusing it with magnetic field, $$H$$.) The enthalpy is obtained from the energy via a different Legendre transformation than that used to obtain the Helmholtz free energy $$F$$ , $\CH=E+pV \quad.$

Again invoking the Second Law, we have $d\CH\le T\,dS -\dbar W + p\,dV + V dp\quad,$ hence with $$\dbar W\ns_{free}=\dbar W - p\,dV$$, we have in general $\dbar W\ns_{free} \le T\,dS + V dp -d\CH\ ,$ and we conclude, for systems at fixed $$(S,p)$$, that $$\dbar W_{free}\le -d\CH$$.

In equilibrium, for single component systems, $d\CH=T\,dS + V dp + \mu\,dN\ ,$ which says $$\CH=\CH(S,p,N)$$, with $T=\pabc{\CH}{S}{p,N} \qquad,\qquad V=\pabc{\CH}{p}{S,N} \qquad,\qquad \mu=\pabc{\CH}{N}{S,p}\quad.$ For spontaneous processes, $$d\CH\le T\,dS + V dp +\mu\,dN$$, which says that spontaneous processes drive the enthalpy $$\CH$$ to a minimum in systems at fixed $$(S,p,N)$$.

## Gibbs free energy $$G$$

If we create a thermodynamic system at conditions of constant temperature $$T$$ and constant pressure $$p$$, then it absorbs heat energy $$Q=TS$$ from the reservoir and we must expend work energy $$pV$$ in order to make room for it. Thus, the total amount of work we must do in assembling our system is $$\CW=E-TS+pV$$. This is the Gibbs free energy, $$G$$. The Gibbs free energy is obtained from $$E$$ after two Legendre transformations, $G=E-TS+pV$ Note that $$G=F+pV=\CH-TS$$. The Second Law says that $dG\le -S\,dT + V dp + p\,dV -\dbar W\quad,$ which we may rearrange as $$\dbar W\ns_{free}\le -S\,dT + V dp - dG$$ . Accordingly, we conclude, for systems at fixed $$(T,p)$$, that $$\dbar W_{free}\le - dG$$.

For equilibrium one-component systems, the differential of $$G$$ is $dG=-S\,dT + V dp + \mu\,dN\ ,$ therefore $$G=G(T,p,N)$$, with $-S=\pabc{G}{T}{p,N} \qquad,\qquad V=\pabc{G}{p}{T,N} \qquad,\qquad \mu=\pabc{G}{N}{T,p}\quad.$ Recall that Euler’s theorem for single component systems requires $$E=TS-pV+\mu N$$  which says $$G=\mu N$$, Thus, the chemical potential $$\mu$$ is the Gibbs free energy per particle. For spontaneous processes, $$dG\le -S\,dT + Vdp + \mu\,dN$$ , hence spontaneous processes drive the Gibbs free energy $$G$$ to a minimum in systems at fixed $$(T,p,N)$$.

## Grand potential $$\Omega$$

The grand potential, sometimes called the Landau free energy, is defined by $\Omega=E-TS-\mu N\ .$ Under equilibrium conditions, its differential is $d\Omega=-S\,dT -p\,dV - N\,d\mu\ ,$ hence $-S=\pabc{\Omega}{T}{V,\mu} \qquad,\qquad -p=\pabc{\Omega}{V}{T,\mu} \qquad,\qquad -N=\pabc{\Omega}{\mu}{T,V}\ .$ Again invoking Equation [ETS], we find $$\Omega = -pV$$, which says that the pressure is the negative of the grand potential per unit volume.

The Second Law tells us $d\Omega \le - \dbar W - S\,dT - \mu\,dN - N\,d\mu\ ,$ hence $\dbar {\widetilde W}\ns_{free}\equiv \dbar W\ns_{free}+\mu\,dN\le -S\,dT -p\,dV -N\,d\mu -d\Omega\ .$ We conclude, for systems at fixed $$(T,V,\mu)$$, that $$\dbar {\widetilde W}_{free}\le - d\Omega$$.

This page titled 2.7: Thermodynamic Potentials is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Daniel Arovas.