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# Model Glossary (start)

## start

accuracy
the degree to which a measured value agrees with correct value for that measurement
approximation
an estimated value based on prior experience and reasoning
classical physics
physics that was developed from the Renaissance to the end of the 19th century
conversion factor
a ratio expressing how many of one unit are equal to another unit
derived units
units that can be calculated using algebraic combinations of the fundamental units
English units
system of measurement used in the United States; includes units of measurement such as feet, gallons, and pounds
fundamental units
units that can only be expressed relative to the procedure used to measure them
kilogram
the SI unit for mass, abbreviated (kg)
law
a description, using concise language or a mathematical formula, a generalized pattern in nature that is supported by scientific evidence and repeated experiments
meter
the SI unit for length, abbreviated (m)
the percent uncertainty in a quantity calculated by multiplication or division is the sum of the percent uncertainties in the items used to make the calculation
metric system
a system in which values can be calculated in factors of 10
model
representation of something that is often too difficult (or impossible) to display directly
modern physics
the study of relativity, quantum mechanics, or both
order of magnitude
refers to the size of a quantity as it relates to a power of 10
percent uncertainty
the ratio of the uncertainty of a measurement to the measured value, expressed as a percentage
physical quantity
a characteristic or property of an object that can be measured or calculated from other measurements
physics
the science concerned with describing the interactions of energy, matter, space, and time; it is especially interested in what fundamental mechanisms underlie every phenomenon
precision
the degree to which repeated measurements agree with each other
quantum mechanics
the study of objects smaller than can be seen with a microscope
relativity
the study of objects moving at speeds greater than about 1% of the speed of light, or of objects being affected by a strong gravitational field
scientific method
a method that typically begins with an observation and question that the scientist will research; next, the scientist typically performs some research about the topic and then devises a hypothesis; then, the scientist will test the hypothesis by performing an experiment; finally, the scientist analyzes the results of the experiment and draws a conclusion
second
the SI unit for time, abbreviated (s)
SI units
the international system of units that scientists in most countries have agreed to use; includes units such as meters, liters, and grams
significant figures
express the precision of a measuring tool used to measure a value
theory
an explanation for patterns in nature that is supported by scientific evidence and verified multiple times by various groups of researchers
uncertainty
a quantitative measure of how much your measured values deviate from a standard or expected value
units
a standard used for expressing and comparing measurements
acceleration
the rate of change in velocity; the change in velocity over time
acceleration due to gravity
acceleration of an object as a result of gravity
average acceleration
the change in velocity divided by the time over which it changes
average speed
distance traveled divided by time during which motion occurs
average velocity
displacement divided by time over which displacement occurs
deceleration
acceleration in the direction opposite to velocity; acceleration that results in a decrease in velocity
dependent variable
the variable that is being measured; usually plotted along the ysize 12{y} {}-axis
displacement
the change in position of an object
distance
the magnitude of displacement between two positions
distance traveled
the total length of the path traveled between two positions
elapsed time
the difference between the ending time and beginning time
free-fall
the state of movement that results from gravitational force only
independent variable
the variable that the dependent variable is measured with respect to; usually plotted along the xsize 12{x} {}-axis
instantaneous acceleration
acceleration at a specific point in time
instantaneous speed
magnitude of the instantaneous velocity
instantaneous velocity
velocity at a specific instant, or the average velocity over an infinitesimal time interval
kinematics
the study of motion without considering its causes
model
simplified description that contains only those elements necessary to describe the physics of a physical situation
position
the location of an object at a particular time
scalar
a quantity that is described by magnitude, but not direction
slope
the difference in ysize 12{y} {}-value (the rise) divided by the difference in xsize 12{x} {}-value (the run) of two points on a straight line
time
change, or the interval over which change occurs
vector
a quantity that is described by both magnitude and direction
y-intercept
the y-size 12{y} {}value when xsize 12{x} {}= 0, or when the graph crosses the ysize 12{y} {}-axis
air resistance
a frictional force that slows the motion of objects as they travel through the air; when solving basic physics problems, air resistance is assumed to be zero
analytical method
the method of determining the magnitude and direction of a resultant vector using the Pythagorean theorem and trigonometric identities
classical relativity
the study of relative velocities in situations where speeds are less than about 1% of the speed of light—that is, less than 3000 km/s
commutative
refers to the interchangeability of order in a function; vector addition is commutative because the order in which vectors are added together does not affect the final sum
component (of a 2-d vector)
a piece of a vector that points in either the vertical or the horizontal direction; every 2-d vector can be expressed as a sum of two vertical and horizontal vector components
direction (of a vector)
the orientation of a vector in space
the end point of a vector; the location of the tip of the vector’s arrowhead; also referred to as the “tip”
a method of adding vectors in which the tail of each vector is placed at the head of the previous vector
kinematics
the study of motion without regard to mass or force
magnitude (of a vector)
the length or size of a vector; magnitude is a scalar quantity
motion
displacement of an object as a function of time
projectile
an object that travels through the air and experiences only acceleration due to gravity
projectile motion
the motion of an object that is subject only to the acceleration of gravity
range
the maximum horizontal distance that a projectile travels
relative velocity
the velocity of an object as observed from a particular reference frame
relativity
the study of how different observers moving relative to each other measure the same phenomenon
resultant
the sum of two or more vectors
resultant vector
the vector sum of two or more vectors
scalar
a quantity with magnitude but no direction
tail
the start point of a vector; opposite to the head or tip of the arrow
trajectory
the path of a projectile through the air
vector
a quantity that has both magnitude and direction; an arrow used to represent quantities with both magnitude and direction
the rules that apply to adding vectors together
velocity
speed in a given direction
acceleration
the rate at which an object’s velocity changes over a period of time
carrier particle
a fundamental particle of nature that is surrounded by a characteristic force field; photons are carrier particles of the electromagnetic force
dynamics
the study of how forces affect the motion of objects and systems
external force
a force acting on an object or system that originates outside of the object or system
force
a push or pull on an object with a specific magnitude and direction; can be represented by vectors; can be expressed as a multiple of a standard force
force field
a region in which a test particle will experience a force
free-body diagram
a sketch showing all of the external forces acting on an object or system; the system is represented by a dot, and the forces are represented by vectors extending outward from the dot
free-fall
a situation in which the only force acting on an object is the force due to gravity
friction
a force past each other of objects that are touching; examples include rough surfaces and air resistance
inertia
the tendency of an object to remain at rest or remain in motion
inertial frame of reference
a coordinate system that is not accelerating; all forces acting in an inertial frame of reference are real forces, as opposed to fictitious forces that are observed due to an accelerating frame of reference
law of inertia
see Newton’s first law of motion
mass
the quantity of matter in a substance; measured in kilograms
net external force
the vector sum of all external forces acting on an object or system; causes a mass to accelerate
Newton’s first law of motion
a body at rest remains at rest, or, if in motion, remains in motion at a constant velocity unless acted on by a net external force; also known as the law of inertia
Newton’s second law of motion
the net external force Fnetsize 12{F rSub { size 8{"net"} } } {} on an object with mass msize 12{m} {} is proportional to and in the same direction as the acceleration of the object, asize 12{a} {}, and inversely proportional to the mass; defined mathematically as a=Fnetmsize 12{a= { {F rSub { size 8{ ital "net"} } } over {m} } } {}
Newton’s third law of motion
whenever one body exerts a force on a second body, the first body experiences a force that is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force that the first body exerts
normal force
the force that a surface applies to an object to support the weight of the object; acts perpendicular to the surface on which the object rests
system
defined by the boundaries of an object or collection of objects being observed; all forces originating from outside of the system are considered external forces
tension
the pulling force that acts along a medium, especially a stretched flexible connector, such as a rope or cable; when a rope supports the weight of an object, the force on the object due to the rope is called a tension force
thrust
a reaction force that pushes a body forward in response to a backward force; rockets, airplanes, and cars are pushed forward by a thrust reaction force
tensile strength
the breaking stress that will cause permanent deformation or fraction of a material
angular velocity
ωsize 12{ω} {}, the rate of change of the angle with which an object moves on a circular path
arc length
Δssize 12{Δs} {}, the distance traveled by an object along a circular path
banked curve
the curve in a road that is sloping in a manner that helps a vehicle negotiate the curve
center of mass
the point where the entire mass of an object can be thought to be concentrated
centrifugal force
a fictitious force that tends to throw an object off when the object is rotating in a non-inertial frame of reference
centripetal acceleration
the acceleration of an object moving in a circle, directed toward the center
centripetal force
any net force causing uniform circular motion
Coriolis force
the fictitious force causing the apparent deflection of moving objects when viewed in a rotating frame of reference
fictitious force
a force having no physical origin
gravitational constant, G
a proportionality factor used in the equation for Newton’s universal law of gravitation; it is a universal constant—that is, it is thought to be the same everywhere in the universe
ideal angle
the angle at which a car can turn safely on a steep curve, which is in proportion to the ideal speed
ideal banking
the sloping of a curve in a road, where the angle of the slope allows the vehicle to negotiate the curve at a certain speed without the aid of friction between the tires and the road; the net external force on the vehicle equals the horizontal centripetal force in the absence of friction
ideal speed
the maximum safe speed at which a vehicle can turn on a curve without the aid of friction between the tire and the road
microgravity
an environment in which the apparent net acceleration of a body is small compared with that produced by Earth at its surface
Newton’s universal law of gravitation
every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force along a line joining them; the force is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
non-inertial frame of reference
an accelerated frame of reference
pit
a tiny indentation on the spiral track moulded into the top of the polycarbonate layer of CD
a unit of angle measurement
rotation angle
the ratio of the arc length to the radius of curvature on a circular path: Δθ=Δsrsize 12{Δθ= { {Δs} over {r} } } {}
ultracentrifuge
a centrifuge optimized for spinning a rotor at very high speeds
uniform circular motion
the motion of an object in a circular path at constant speed
basal metabolic rate
the total energy conversion rate of a person at rest
chemical energy
the energy in a substance stored in the bonds between atoms and molecules that can be released in a chemical reaction
conservation of mechanical energy
the rule that the sum of the kinetic energies and potential energies remains constant if only conservative forces act on and within a system
conservative force
a force that does the same work for any given initial and final configuration, regardless of the path followed
efficiency
a measure of the effectiveness of the input of energy to do work; useful energy or work divided by the total input of energy
electrical energy
the energy carried by a flow of charge
energy
the ability to do work
fossil fuels
oil, natural gas, and coal
friction
the force between surfaces that opposes one sliding on the other; friction changes mechanical energy into thermal energy
gravitational potential energy
the energy an object has due to its position in a gravitational field
horsepower
an older non-SI unit of power, with 1 hp=746 W
joule
SI unit of work and energy, equal to one newton-meter
kilowatt-hour
(kW⋅h)size 12{ $$"kW" cdot h$$ } {} unit used primarily for electrical energy provided by electric utility companies
kinetic energy
the energy an object has by reason of its motion, equal to 12mv2size 12{ { {1} over {2} } ital "mv" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} for the translational (i.e., non-rotational) motion of an object of mass msize 12{m} {} moving at speed vsize 12{v} {}
law of conservation of energy
the general law that total energy is constant in any process; energy may change in form or be transferred from one system to another, but the total remains the same
mechanical energy
the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy
metabolic rate
the rate at which the body uses food energy to sustain life and to do different activities
net work
work done by the net force, or vector sum of all the forces, acting on an object
nonconservative force
a force whose work depends on the path followed between the given initial and final configurations
nuclear energy
energy released by changes within atomic nuclei, such as the fusion of two light nuclei or the fission of a heavy nucleus
potential energy
energy due to position, shape, or configuration
potential energy of a spring
the stored energy of a spring as a function of its displacement; when Hooke’s law applies, it is given by the expression 12kx2size 12{ { {1} over {2} } ital "kx" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} where xsize 12{x} {} is the distance the spring is compressed or extended and ksize 12{k} {} is the spring constant
power
the rate at which work is done
the energy carried by electromagnetic waves
renewable forms of energy
those sources that cannot be used up, such as water, wind, solar, and biomass
thermal energy
the energy within an object due to the random motion of its atoms and molecules that accounts for the object's temperature
useful work
work done on an external system
watt
(W) SI unit of power, with 1 W=1 J/s
work
the transfer of energy by a force that causes an object to be displaced; the product of the component of the force in the direction of the displacement and the magnitude of the displacement
work-energy theorem
the result, based on Newton’s laws, that the net work done on an object is equal to its change in kinetic energy
change in momentum
the difference between the final and initial momentum; the mass times the change in velocity
conservation of momentum principle
when the net external force is zero, the total momentum of the system is conserved or constant
elastic collision
a collision that also conserves internal kinetic energy
impulse
the average net external force times the time it acts; equal to the change in momentum
inelastic collision
a collision in which internal kinetic energy is not conserved
internal kinetic energy
the sum of the kinetic energies of the objects in a system
isolated system
a system in which the net external force is zero
linear momentum
the product of mass and velocity
perfectly inelastic collision
a collision in which the colliding objects stick together
point masses
structureless particles with no rotation or spin
quark
fundamental constituent of matter and an elementary particle
second law of motion
physical law that states that the net external force equals the change in momentum of a system divided by the time over which it changes
center of gravity
the point where the total weight of the body is assumed to be concentrated
dynamic equilibrium
a state of equilibrium in which the net external force and torque on a system moving with constant velocity are zero
the ratio of output to input forces for any simple machine
neutral equilibrium
a state of equilibrium that is independent of a system’s displacements from its original position
perpendicular lever arm
the shortest distance from the pivot point to the line along which F lies
SI units of torque
newton times meters, usually written as N·m
stable equilibrium
a system, when displaced, experiences a net force or torque in a direction opposite to the direction of the displacement
static equilibrium
a state of equilibrium in which the net external force and torque acting on a system is zero
static equilibrium
equilibrium in which the acceleration of the system is zero and accelerated rotation does not occur
torque
turning or twisting effectiveness of a force
unstable equilibrium
a system, when displaced, experiences a net force or torque in the same direction as the displacement from equilibrium
angular acceleration
the rate of change of angular velocity with time
angular momentum
the product of moment of inertia and angular velocity
change in angular velocity
the difference between final and initial values of angular velocity
kinematics of rotational motion
describes the relationships among rotation angle, angular velocity, angular acceleration, and time
law of conservation of angular momentum
angular momentum is conserved, i.e., the initial angular momentum is equal to the final angular momentum when no external torque is applied to the system
moment of inertia
mass times the square of perpendicular distance from the rotation axis; for a point mass, it is I=mr2size 12{I= ital "mr" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} and, because any object can be built up from a collection of point masses, this relationship is the basis for all other moments of inertia
right-hand rule
direction of angular velocity ω and angular momentum L in which the thumb of your right hand points when you curl your fingers in the direction of the disk’s rotation
rotational inertia
resistance to change of rotation. The more rotational inertia an object has, the harder it is to rotate
rotational kinetic energy
the kinetic energy due to the rotation of an object. This is part of its total kinetic energy
tangential acceleration
the acceleration in a direction tangent to the circle at the point of interest in circular motion
torque
the turning effectiveness of a force
work-energy theorem
if one or more external forces act upon a rigid object, causing its kinetic energy to change from KE1size 12{E rSub { size 8{k1} } } {} to KE2size 12{E rSub { size 8{k2} } } {}, then the work Wsize 12{W} {} done by the net force is equal to the change in kinetic energy
absolute pressure
the sum of gauge pressure and atmospheric pressure
the attractive forces between molecules of different types
Archimedes’ principle
the buoyant force on an object equals the weight of the fluid it displaces
buoyant force
the net upward force on any object in any fluid
capillary action
the tendency of a fluid to be raised or lowered in a narrow tube
cohesive forces
the attractive forces between molecules of the same type
contact angle
the angle θsize 12{θ} {} between the tangent to the liquid surface and the surface
density
the mass per unit volume of a substance or object
diastolic pressure
the minimum blood pressure in the artery
diastolic pressure
minimum arterial blood pressure; indicator for the fluid balance
fluids
liquids and gases; a fluid is a state of matter that yields to shearing forces
gauge pressure
the pressure relative to atmospheric pressure
glaucoma
condition caused by the buildup of fluid pressure in the eye
intraocular pressure
fluid pressure in the eye
micturition reflex
stimulates the feeling of needing to urinate, triggered by bladder pressure
Pascal’s Principle
a change in pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to all portions of the fluid and to the walls of its container
pressure
the force per unit area perpendicular to the force, over which the force acts
pressure
the weight of the fluid divided by the area supporting it
specific gravity
the ratio of the density of an object to a fluid (usually water)
surface tension
the cohesive forces between molecules which cause the surface of a liquid to contract to the smallest possible surface area
systolic pressure
the maximum blood pressure in the artery
systolic pressure
maximum arterial blood pressure; indicator for the blood flow
active transport
the process in which a living membrane expends energy to move substances across
Bernoulli’s equation
the equation resulting from applying conservation of energy to an incompressible frictionless fluid: P + 1/2pv2 + pgh = constant , through the fluid
Bernoulli’s principle
Bernoulli’s equation applied at constant depth: P1 + 1/2pv12 = P2 + 1/2pv22
dialysis
the transport of any molecule other than water through a semipermeable membrane from a region of high concentration to one of low concentration
diffusion
the movement of substances due to random thermal molecular motion
flow rate
abbreviated Q, it is the volume V that flows past a particular point during a time t, or Q = V/t
fluid dynamics
the physics of fluids in motion
laminar
a type of fluid flow in which layers do not mix
liter
a unit of volume, equal to 10−3 m3
osmosis
the transport of water through a semipermeable membrane from a region of high concentration to one of low concentration
osmotic pressure
the back pressure which stops the osmotic process if one solution is pure water
Poiseuille’s law
the rate of laminar flow of an incompressible fluid in a tube: Q = (P2P1)πr4/8ηl
Poiseuille’s law for resistance
the resistance to laminar flow of an incompressible fluid in a tube: R = 8ηl/πr4
relative osmotic pressure
the back pressure which stops the osmotic process if neither solution is pure water
reverse dialysis
the process that occurs when back pressure is sufficient to reverse the normal direction of dialysis through membranes
reverse osmosis
the process that occurs when back pressure is sufficient to reverse the normal direction of osmosis through membranes
Reynolds number
a dimensionless parameter that can reveal whether a particular flow is laminar or turbulent
semipermeable
a type of membrane that allows only certain small molecules to pass through
terminal speed
the speed at which the viscous drag of an object falling in a viscous fluid is equal to the other forces acting on the object (such as gravity), so that the acceleration of the object is zero
turbulence
fluid flow in which layers mix together via eddies and swirls
viscosity
the friction in a fluid, defined in terms of the friction between layers
viscous drag
a resistance force exerted on a moving object, with a nontrivial dependence on velocity
absolute zero
the lowest possible temperature; the temperature at which all molecular motion ceases
NA , the number of molecules or atoms in one mole of a substance; NA=6.02×1023size 12{N rSub { size 8{A} } =6 "." "02" times "10" rSup { size 8{"23"} } } {} particles/mole
Boltzmann constant
k , a physical constant that relates energy to temperature; k=1.38×10–23J/K
Celsius scale
temperature scale in which the freezing point of water is 0ºCsize 12{0°C} {} and the boiling point of water is 100ºCsize 12{"100"°C} {}
coefficient of linear expansion
αsize 12{α} {}, the change in length, per unit length, per 1ºCsize 12{1°C} {} change in temperature; a constant used in the calculation of linear expansion; the coefficient of linear expansion depends on the material and to some degree on the temperature of the material
coefficient of volume expansion
βsize 12{β} {}, the change in volume, per unit volume, per 1ºCsize 12{1°C} {} change in temperature
critical point
the temperature above which a liquid cannot exist
critical pressure
the minimum pressure needed for a liquid to exist at the critical temperature
critical temperature
the temperature above which a liquid cannot exist
Dalton’s law of partial pressures
the physical law that states that the total pressure of a gas is the sum of partial pressures of the component gases
degree Celsius
unit on the Celsius temperature scale
degree Fahrenheit
unit on the Fahrenheit temperature scale
dew point
the temperature at which relative humidity is 100%; the temperature at which water starts to condense out of the air
Fahrenheit scale
temperature scale in which the freezing point of water is 32ºFsize 12{"32"°F} {} and the boiling point of water is 212ºFsize 12{"212"°F} {}
ideal gas law
the physical law that relates the pressure and volume of a gas to the number of gas molecules or number of moles of gas and the temperature of the gas
Kelvin scale
temperature scale in which 0 K is the lowest possible temperature, representing absolute zero
mole
the quantity of a substance whose mass (in grams) is equal to its molecular mass
partial pressure
the pressure a gas would create if it occupied the total volume of space available
percent relative humidity
the ratio of vapor density to saturation vapor density
phase diagram
a graph of pressure vs. temperature of a particular substance, showing at which pressures and temperatures the three phases of the substance occur
PV diagram
a graph of pressure vs. volume
relative humidity
the amount of water in the air relative to the maximum amount the air can hold
saturation
the condition of 100% relative humidity
sublimation
the phase change from solid to gas
temperature
the quantity measured by a thermometer
thermal energy
KE¯¯¯¯¯, the average translational kinetic energy of a molecule
thermal equilibrium
the condition in which heat no longer flows between two objects that are in contact; the two objects have the same temperature
thermal expansion
the change in size or volume of an object with change in temperature
thermal stress
stress caused by thermal expansion or contraction
triple point
the pressure and temperature at which a substance exists in equilibrium as a solid, liquid, and gas
vapor
a gas at a temperature below the boiling temperature
vapor pressure
the pressure at which a gas coexists with its solid or liquid phase
zeroth law of thermodynamics
law that states that if two objects are in thermal equilibrium, and a third object is in thermal equilibrium with one of those objects, it is also in thermal equilibrium with the other object
conduction
heat transfer through stationary matter by physical contact
convection
heat transfer by the macroscopic movement of fluid
emissivity
measure of how well an object radiates
greenhouse effect
warming of the Earth that is due to gases such as carbon dioxide and methane that absorb infrared radiation from the Earth’s surface and reradiate it in all directions, thus sending a fraction of it back toward the surface of the Earth
heat
the spontaneous transfer of energy due to a temperature difference
heat of sublimation
the energy required to change a substance from the solid phase to the vapor phase
kilocalorie
1kilocalorie=1000caloriessize 12{1"kilocalorie=1000""calories"} {}
latent heat coefficient
a physical constant equal to the amount of heat transferred for every 1 kg of a substance during the change in phase of the substance
mechanical equivalent of heat
the work needed to produce the same effects as heat transfer
net rate of heat transfer by radiation
is Qnett=σeA(T42−T41)size 12{ { {Q rSub { size 8{"net"} } } over {t} } =σeA left (T rSub { size 8{2} } rSup { size 8{4} } - T rSub { size 8{1} } rSup { size 8{4} } right )} {}
R factor
the ratio of thickness to the conductivity of a material
heat transfer which occurs when microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, or other electromagnetic radiation is emitted or absorbed
energy transferred by electromagnetic waves directly as a result of a temperature difference
rate of conductive heat transfer
rate of heat transfer from one material to another
specific heat
the amount of heat necessary to change the temperature of 1.00 kg of a substance by 1.00 ºC
Qt=σeAT4,size 12{ { {Q} over {t} } =σeAT rSup { size 8{4} } ,} {} where σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, A is the surface area of the object, Tsize 12{T} {} is the absolute temperature, and esize 12{e} {} is the emissivity
sublimation
the transition from the solid phase to the vapor phase
thermal conductivity
the property of a material’s ability to conduct heat
a process in which no heat transfer takes place
Carnot cycle
a cyclical process that uses only reversible processes, the adiabatic and isothermal processes
Carnot efficiency
the maximum theoretical efficiency for a heat engine
Carnot engine
a heat engine that uses a Carnot cycle
change in entropy
the ratio of heat transfer to temperature Q/Tsize 12{Q/T} {}
coefficient of performance
for a heat pump, it is the ratio of heat transfer at the output (the hot reservoir) to the work supplied; for a refrigerator or air conditioner, it is the ratio of heat transfer from the cold reservoir to the work supplied
cyclical process
a process in which the path returns to its original state at the end of every cycle
entropy
a measurement of a system's disorder and its inability to do work in a system
first law of thermodynamics
states that the change in internal energy of a system equals the net heat transfer into the system minus the net work done by the system
heat engine
a machine that uses heat transfer to do work
heat pump
a machine that generates heat transfer from cold to hot
human metabolism
conversion of food into heat transfer, work, and stored fat
internal energy
the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of a system’s atoms and molecules
irreversible process
any process that depends on path direction
isobaric process
constant-pressure process in which a gas does work
isochoric process
a constant-volume process
isothermal process
a constant-temperature process
macrostate
an overall property of a system
microstate
each sequence within a larger macrostate
Otto cycle
a thermodynamic cycle, consisting of a pair of adiabatic processes and a pair of isochoric processes, that converts heat into work, e.g., the four-stroke engine cycle of intake, compression, ignition, and exhaust
reversible process
a process in which both the heat engine system and the external environment theoretically can be returned to their original states
second law of thermodynamics
heat transfer flows from a hotter to a cooler object, never the reverse, and some heat energy in any process is lost to available work in a cyclical process
second law of thermodynamics stated in terms of entropy
the total entropy of a system either increases or remains constant; it never decreases
statistical analysis
using statistics to examine data, such as counting microstates and macrostates
amplitude
the maximum displacement from the equilibrium position of an object oscillating around the equilibrium position
antinode
the location of maximum amplitude in standing waves
beat frequency
the frequency of the amplitude fluctuations of a wave
constructive interference
when two waves arrive at the same point exactly in phase; that is, the crests of the two waves are precisely aligned, as are the troughs
critical damping
the condition in which the damping of an oscillator causes it to return as quickly as possible to its equilibrium position without oscillating back and forth about this position
deformation
displacement from equilibrium
destructive interference
when two identical waves arrive at the same point exactly out of phase; that is, precisely aligned crest to trough
elastic potential energy
potential energy stored as a result of deformation of an elastic object, such as the stretching of a spring
force constant
a constant related to the rigidity of a system: the larger the force constant, the more rigid the system; the force constant is represented by k
frequency
number of events per unit of time
fundamental frequency
the lowest frequency of a periodic waveform
intensity
power per unit area
longitudinal wave
a wave in which the disturbance is parallel to the direction of propagation
natural frequency
the frequency at which a system would oscillate if there were no driving and no damping forces
nodes
the points where the string does not move; more generally, nodes are where the wave disturbance is zero in a standing wave
oscillate
moving back and forth regularly between two points
over damping
the condition in which damping of an oscillator causes it to return to equilibrium without oscillating; oscillator moves more slowly toward equilibrium than in the critically damped system
overtones
multiples of the fundamental frequency of a sound
period
time it takes to complete one oscillation
periodic motion
motion that repeats itself at regular time intervals
resonance
the phenomenon of driving a system with a frequency equal to the system's natural frequency
resonate
a system being driven at its natural frequency
restoring force
force acting in opposition to the force caused by a deformation
simple harmonic motion
the oscillatory motion in a system where the net force can be described by Hooke’s law
simple harmonic oscillator
a device that implements Hooke’s law, such as a mass that is attached to a spring, with the other end of the spring being connected to a rigid support such as a wall
simple pendulum
an object with a small mass suspended from a light wire or string
superposition
the phenomenon that occurs when two or more waves arrive at the same point
transverse wave
a wave in which the disturbance is perpendicular to the direction of propagation
under damping
the condition in which damping of an oscillator causes it to return to equilibrium with the amplitude gradually decreasing to zero; system returns to equilibrium faster but overshoots and crosses the equilibrium position one or more times
wave
a disturbance that moves from its source and carries energy
wave velocity
the speed at which the disturbance moves. Also called the propagation velocity or propagation speed
wavelength
the distance between adjacent identical parts of a wave
acoustic impedance
property of medium that makes the propagation of sound waves more difficult
antinode
point of maximum displacement
bow wake
V-shaped disturbance created when the wave source moves faster than the wave propagation speed
Doppler effect
an alteration in the observed frequency of a sound due to motion of either the source or the observer
Doppler shift
the actual change in frequency due to relative motion of source and observer
Doppler-shifted ultrasound
a medical technique to detect motion and determine velocity through the Doppler shift of an echo
fundamental
the lowest-frequency resonance
harmonics
the term used to refer collectively to the fundamental and its overtones
hearing
the perception of sound
infrasound
sounds below 20 Hz
intensity
the power per unit area carried by a wave
intensity reflection coefficient
a measure of the ratio of the intensity of the wave reflected off a boundary between two media relative to the intensity of the incident wave
loudness
the perception of sound intensity
node
point of zero displacement
note
basic unit of music with specific names, combined to generate tunes
overtones
all resonant frequencies higher than the fundamental
phon
the numerical unit of loudness
pitch
the perception of the frequency of a sound
sonic boom
a constructive interference of sound created by an object moving faster than sound
sound
a disturbance of matter that is transmitted from its source outward
sound intensity level
a unitless quantity telling you the level of the sound relative to a fixed standard
sound pressure level
the ratio of the pressure amplitude to a reference pressure
timbre
number and relative intensity of multiple sound frequencies
tone
number and relative intensity of multiple sound frequencies
ultrasound
sounds above 20,000 Hz
conductor
a material that allows electrons to move separately from their atomic orbits
conductor
an object with properties that allow charges to move about freely within it
Coulomb force
another term for the electrostatic force
Coulomb interaction
the interaction between two charged particles generated by the Coulomb forces they exert on one another
Coulomb’s law
the mathematical equation calculating the electrostatic force vector between two charged particles
dipole
a molecule’s lack of symmetrical charge distribution, causing one side to be more positive and another to be more negative
electric charge
a physical property of an object that causes it to be attracted toward or repelled from another charged object; each charged object generates and is influenced by a force called an electromagnetic force
electric field
a three-dimensional map of the electric force extended out into space from a point charge
electric field lines
a series of lines drawn from a point charge representing the magnitude and direction of force exerted by that charge
electromagnetic force
one of the four fundamental forces of nature; the electromagnetic force consists of static electricity, moving electricity and magnetism
electron
a particle orbiting the nucleus of an atom and carrying the smallest unit of negative charge
electrostatic equilibrium
an electrostatically balanced state in which all free electrical charges have stopped moving about
electrostatic force
the amount and direction of attraction or repulsion between two charged bodies
electrostatic precipitators
filters that apply charges to particles in the air, then attract those charges to a filter, removing them from the airstream
electrostatic repulsion
the phenomenon of two objects with like charges repelling each other
electrostatics
the study of electric forces that are static or slow-moving
a metal shield which prevents electric charge from penetrating its surface
field
a map of the amount and direction of a force acting on other objects, extending out into space
free charge
an electrical charge (either positive or negative) which can move about separately from its base molecule
free electron
an electron that is free to move away from its atomic orbit
grounded
when a conductor is connected to the Earth, allowing charge to freely flow to and from Earth’s unlimited reservoir
grounded
connected to the ground with a conductor, so that charge flows freely to and from the Earth to the grounded object
induction
the process by which an electrically charged object brought near a neutral object creates a charge in that object
ink-jet printer
small ink droplets sprayed with an electric charge are controlled by electrostatic plates to create images on paper
insulator
a material that holds electrons securely within their atomic orbits
ionosphere
a layer of charged particles located around 100 km above the surface of Earth, which is responsible for a range of phenomena including the electric field surrounding Earth
laser printer
uses a laser to create a photoconductive image on a drum, which attracts dry ink particles that are then rolled onto a sheet of paper to print a high-quality copy of the image
law of conservation of charge
states that whenever a charge is created, an equal amount of charge with the opposite sign is created simultaneously
photoconductor
a substance that is an insulator until it is exposed to light, when it becomes a conductor
point charge
A charged particle, designated Qsize 12{Q} {}, generating an electric field
polar molecule
a molecule with an asymmetrical distribution of positive and negative charge
polarization
slight shifting of positive and negative charges to opposite sides of an atom or molecule
polarized
a state in which the positive and negative charges within an object have collected in separate locations
proton
a particle in the nucleus of an atom and carrying a positive charge equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to the amount of negative charge carried by an electron
screening
the dilution or blocking of an electrostatic force on a charged object by the presence of other charges nearby
static electricity
a buildup of electric charge on the surface of an object
test charge
A particle (designated qsize 12{q} {}) with either a positive or negative charge set down within an electric field generated by a point charge
Van de Graaff generator
a machine that produces a large amount of excess charge, used for experiments with high voltage
vector
a quantity with both magnitude and direction
mathematical combination of two or more vectors, including their magnitudes, directions, and positions
xerography
a dry copying process based on electrostatics
capacitance
amount of charge stored per unit volt
capacitor
a device that stores electric charge
defibrillator
a machine used to provide an electrical shock to a heart attack victim's heart in order to restore the heart's normal rhythmic pattern
dielectric
an insulating material
dielectric strength
the maximum electric field above which an insulating material begins to break down and conduct
electric potential
potential energy per unit charge
electron volt
the energy given to a fundamental charge accelerated through a potential difference of one volt
equipotential line
a line along which the electric potential is constant
grounding
fixing a conductor at zero volts by connecting it to the earth or ground
mechanical energy
sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy of a system; this sum is a constant
parallel plate capacitor
two identical conducting plates separated by a distance
polar molecule
a molecule with inherent separation of charge
potential difference (or voltage)
change in potential energy of a charge moved from one point to another, divided by the charge; units of potential difference are joules per coulomb, known as volt
scalar
physical quantity with magnitude but no direction
vector
physical quantity with both magnitude and direction
AC current
current that fluctuates sinusoidally with time, expressed as I = I0 sin 2πft, where I is the current at time t, I0 is the peak current, and f is the frequency in hertz
AC voltage
voltage that fluctuates sinusoidally with time, expressed as V = V0 sin 2πft, where V is the voltage at time t, V0 is the peak voltage, and f is the frequency in hertz
alternating current
(AC) the flow of electric charge that periodically reverses direction
ampere
(amp) the SI unit for current; 1 A = 1 C/s
bioelectricity
electrical effects in and created by biological systems
direct current
(DC) the flow of electric charge in only one direction
drift velocity
the average velocity at which free charges flow in response to an electric field
electric current
the rate at which charge flows, I = ΔQt
electric power
the rate at which electrical energy is supplied by a source or dissipated by a device; it is the product of current times voltage
electrocardiogram (ECG)
usually abbreviated ECG, a record of voltages created by depolarization and repolarization, especially in the heart
microshock sensitive
a condition in which a person’s skin resistance is bypassed, possibly by a medical procedure, rendering the person vulnerable to electrical shock at currents about 1/1000 the normally required level
nerve conduction
the transport of electrical signals by nerve cells
ohm
the unit of resistance, given by 1Ω = 1 V/A
Ohm’s law
an empirical relation stating that the current I is proportional to the potential difference V, ∝ V; it is often written as I = V/R, where R is the resistance
ohmic
a type of a material for which Ohm's law is valid
resistance
the electric property that impedes current; for ohmic materials, it is the ratio of voltage to current, R = V/I
resistivity
an intrinsic property of a material, independent of its shape or size, directly proportional to the resistance, denoted by ρ
rms current
the root mean square of the current, Irms=I0/2–√size 12{I rSub { size 8{"rms "} } = I rSub { size 8{0} } / sqrt {2} } {} , where I0 is the peak current, in an AC system
rms voltage
the root mean square of the voltage, Vrms=V0/2–√size 12{V rSub { size 8{"rms "} } = V rSub { size 8{0} } / sqrt {2} } {} , where V0 is the peak voltage, in an AC system
semipermeable
property of a membrane that allows only certain types of ions to cross it
shock hazard
when electric current passes through a person
short circuit
also known as a “short,” a low-resistance path between terminals of a voltage source
simple circuit
a circuit with a single voltage source and a single resistor
temperature coefficient of resistivity
an empirical quantity, denoted by α, which describes the change in resistance or resistivity of a material with temperature
thermal hazard
a hazard in which electric current causes undesired thermal effects
ammeter
an instrument that measures current
analog meter
a measuring instrument that gives a readout in the form of a needle movement over a marked gauge
bridge device
a device that forms a bridge between two branches of a circuit; some bridge devices are used to make null measurements in circuits
capacitance
the maximum amount of electric potential energy that can be stored (or separated) for a given electric potential
capacitor
an electrical component used to store energy by separating electric charge on two opposing plates
conservation laws
require that energy and charge be conserved in a system
current
the flow of charge through an electric circuit past a given point of measurement
current sensitivity
the maximum current that a galvanometer can read
digital meter
a measuring instrument that gives a readout in a digital form
electromotive force (emf)
the potential difference of a source of electricity when no current is flowing; measured in volts
full-scale deflection
the maximum deflection of a galvanometer needle, also known as current sensitivity; a galvanometer with a full-scale deflection of 50 μAsize 12{"50" mA} {} has a maximum deflection of its needle when 50 μAsize 12{"50" μA} {} flows through it
galvanometer
an analog measuring device, denoted by G, that measures current flow using a needle deflection caused by a magnetic field force acting upon a current-carrying wire
internal resistance
the amount of resistance within the voltage source
Joule’s law
the relationship between potential electrical power, voltage, and resistance in an electrical circuit, given by: Pe=IVsize 12{P rSub { size 8{e} } = ital "IV"} {}
junction rule
Kirchhoff’s first rule, which applies the conservation of charge to a junction; current is the flow of charge; thus, whatever charge flows into the junction must flow out; the rule can be stated I1=I2+I3size 12{I rSub { size 8{1} } =I rSub { size 8{2} } +I rSub { size 8{3} } } {}
Kirchhoff’s rules
a set of two rules, based on conservation of charge and energy, governing current and changes in potential in an electric circuit
loop rule
Kirchhoff’s second rule, which states that in a closed loop, whatever energy is supplied by emf must be transferred into other forms by devices in the loop, since there are no other ways in which energy can be transferred into or out of the circuit. Thus, the emf equals the sum of the IRsize 12{ ital "IR"} {} (voltage) drops in the loop and can be stated: emf=Ir+IR1+IR2size 12{"emf"= ital "Ir"+ ital "IR" rSub { size 8{1} } + ital "IR" rSub { size 8{2} } } {}
null measurements
methods of measuring current and voltage more accurately by balancing the circuit so that no current flows through the measurement device
Ohm’s law
the relationship between current, voltage, and resistance within an electrical circuit: V=IRsize 12{V= ital "IR"} {}
ohmmeter
an instrument that applies a voltage to a resistance, measures the current, calculates the resistance using Ohm’s law, and provides a readout of this calculated resistance
parallel
the wiring of resistors or other components in an electrical circuit such that each component receives an equal voltage from the power source; often pictured in a ladder-shaped diagram, with each component on a rung of the ladder
potential difference
the difference in electric potential between two points in an electric circuit, measured in volts
potentiometer
a null measurement device for measuring potentials (voltages)
RC circuit
a circuit that contains both a resistor and a capacitor
resistance
causing a loss of electrical power in a circuit
resistor
a component that provides resistance to the current flowing through an electrical circuit
series
a sequence of resistors or other components wired into a circuit one after the other
shunt resistance
a small resistance Rsize 12{R} {} placed in parallel with a galvanometer G to produce an ammeter; the larger the current to be measured, the smaller Rsize 12{R} {} must be; most of the current flowing through the meter is shunted through Rsize 12{R} {} to protect the galvanometer
terminal voltage
the voltage measured across the terminals of a source of potential difference
voltage
the electrical potential energy per unit charge; electric pressure created by a power source, such as a battery
voltage drop
the loss of electrical power as a current travels through a resistor, wire or other component
voltmeter
an instrument that measures voltage
Wheatstone bridge
a null measurement device for calculating resistance by balancing potential drops in a circuit
Ampere’s law
the physical law that states that the magnetic field around an electric current is proportional to the current; each segment of current produces a magnetic field like that of a long straight wire, and the total field of any shape current is the vector sum of the fields due to each segment
B-field
another term for magnetic field
Biot-Savart law
a physical law that describes the magnetic field generated by an electric current in terms of a specific equation
Curie temperature
the temperature above which a ferromagnetic material cannot be magnetized
direction of magnetic field lines
the direction that the north end of a compass needle points
domains
regions within a material that behave like small bar magnets
electromagnet
an object that is temporarily magnetic when an electrical current is passed through it
electromagnetism
the use of electrical currents to induce magnetism
ferromagnetic
materials, such as iron, cobalt, nickel, and gadolinium, that exhibit strong magnetic effects
gauss
G, the unit of the magnetic field strength; 1 G=10–4Tsize 12{"1 G"="10" rSup { size 8{ - 4} } T} {}
Hall effect
the creation of voltage across a current-carrying conductor by a magnetic field
Hall emf
the electromotive force created by a current-carrying conductor by a magnetic field, ε=Blvsize 12{ε= ital "Blv"} {}
Lorentz force
the force on a charge moving in a magnetic field
magnetic field
the representation of magnetic forces
magnetic field lines
the pictorial representation of the strength and the direction of a magnetic field
magnetic field strength (magnitude) produced by a long straight current-carrying wire
defined as B=μ0I2πr, where I is the current, r is the shortest distance to the wire, and μ0 is the permeability of free space
magnetic field strength at the center of a circular loop
defined as B=μ0I2R where R is the radius of the loop
magnetic field strength inside a solenoid
defined as B=μ0nI where n is the number of loops per unit length of the solenoid (n=N/l, with N being the number of loops and l the length)
magnetic force
the force on a charge produced by its motion through a magnetic field; the Lorentz force
magnetic monopoles
an isolated magnetic pole; a south pole without a north pole, or vice versa (no magnetic monopole has ever been observed)
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
a medical imaging technique that uses magnetic fields create detailed images of internal tissues and organs
magnetized
to be turned into a magnet; to be induced to be magnetic
magnetocardiogram (MCG)
a recording of the heart’s magnetic field as it beats
magnetoencephalogram (MEG)
a measurement of the brain’s magnetic field
Maxwell’s equations
a set of four equations that describe electromagnetic phenomena
meter
common application of magnetic torque on a current-carrying loop that is very similar in construction to a motor; by design, the torque is proportional to I and not θ, so the needle deflection is proportional to the current
motor
loop of wire in a magnetic field; when current is passed through the loops, the magnetic field exerts torque on the loops, which rotates a shaft; electrical energy is converted to mechanical work in the process
north magnetic pole
the end or the side of a magnet that is attracted toward Earth’s geographic north pole
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
a phenomenon in which an externally applied magnetic field interacts with the nuclei of certain atoms
permeability of free space
the measure of the ability of a material, in this case free space, to support a magnetic field; the constant μ0=4π×10−7T⋅m/A
right hand rule 1 (RHR-1)
the rule to determine the direction of the magnetic force on a positive moving charge: when the thumb of the right hand points in the direction of the charge’s velocity vsize 12{v} {} and the fingers point in the direction of the magnetic field Bsize 12{B} {}, then the force on the charge is perpendicular and away from the palm; the force on a negative charge is perpendicular and into the palm
right hand rule 2 (RHR-2)
a rule to determine the direction of the magnetic field induced by a current-carrying wire: Point the thumb of the right hand in the direction of current, and the fingers curl in the direction of the magnetic field loops
solenoid
a thin wire wound into a coil that produces a magnetic field when an electric current is passed through it
south magnetic pole
the end or the side of a magnet that is attracted toward Earth’s geographic south pole
tesla
T, the SI unit of the magnetic field strength; 1 T=1 NA⋅m
back emf
the emf generated by a running motor, because it consists of a coil turning in a magnetic field; it opposes the voltage powering the motor
capacitive reactance
the opposition of a capacitor to a change in current; calculated by XC=12πfCsize 12{X rSub { size 8{C} } = { {1} over {2π ital "fC"} } } {}
characteristic time constant
denoted by τsize 12{τ} {}, of a particular series RL circuit is calculated by τ=LRsize 12{τ= { {L} over {R} } } {}, where Lsize 12{L} {} is the inductance and R is the resistance
eddy current
a current loop in a conductor caused by motional emf
electric generator
a device for converting mechanical work into electric energy; it induces an emf by rotating a coil in a magnetic field
electromagnetic induction
the process of inducing an emf (voltage) with a change in magnetic flux
emf induced in a generator coil
emf=NABωsinωtsize 12{"emf"= ital "NAB"ω"sin"ωt} {}, where A is the area of an N-turn coil rotated at a constant angular velocity ω in a uniform magnetic field B, over a period of time t
energy stored in an inductor
self-explanatory; calculated by Eind=12LI2size 12{E rSub { size 8{"ind"} } = { {1} over {2} } ital "LI" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
the means of calculating the emf in a coil due to changing magnetic flux, given by emf=−NΔΦΔtsize 12{"emf"= - N { {ΔΦ} over {Δt} } } {}
henry
the unit of inductance; 1H=1Ω⋅ssize 12{1H=1 %OMEGA cdot s} {}
impedance
the AC analogue to resistance in a DC circuit; it is the combined effect of resistance, inductive reactance, and capacitive reactance in the form Z=R2+(XL−XC)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−√size 12{Z= sqrt {R rSup { size 8{2} } + $$X rSub { size 8{L} } - X rSub { size 8{C} }$$ rSup { size 8{2} } } } {}
inductance
a property of a device describing how efficient it is at inducing emf in another device
induction
(magnetic induction) the creation of emfs and hence currents by magnetic fields
inductive reactance
the opposition of an inductor to a change in current; calculated by XL=2πfLsize 12{X rSub { size 8{L} } =2π ital "fL"} {}
inductor
a device that exhibits significant self-inductance
Lenz’s law
the minus sign in Faraday’s law, signifying that the emf induced in a coil opposes the change in magnetic flux
magnetic damping
the drag produced by eddy currents
magnetic flux
the amount of magnetic field going through a particular area, calculated with Φ=BAcosθsize 12{Φ= ital "BA""cos"θ} {} where Bsize 12{B} {} is the magnetic field strength over an area Asize 12{A} {} at an angle θsize 12{θ} {} with the perpendicular to the area
mutual inductance
how effective a pair of devices are at inducing emfs in each other
peak emf
emf0=NABωsize 12{"emf" rSub { size 8{0} } = ital "NAB"ω} {}
phase angle
denoted by ϕsize 12{ϕ} {}, the amount by which the voltage and current are out of phase with each other in a circuit
power factor
the amount by which the power delivered in the circuit is less than the theoretical maximum of the circuit due to voltage and current being out of phase; calculated by cosϕsize 12{"cos"ϕ} {}
resonant frequency
the frequency at which the impedance in a circuit is at a minimum, and also the frequency at which the circuit would oscillate if not driven by a voltage source; calculated by f0=12πLC√size 12{f rSub { size 8{0} } = { {1} over {2π sqrt { ital "LC"} } } } {}
self-inductance
how effective a device is at inducing emf in itself
shock hazard
the term for electrical hazards due to current passing through a human
step-down transformer
a transformer that decreases voltage
step-up transformer
a transformer that increases voltage
thermal hazard
the term for electrical hazards due to overheating
three-wire system
the wiring system used at present for safety reasons, with live, neutral, and ground wires
transformer
a device that transforms voltages from one value to another using induction
transformer equation
the equation showing that the ratio of the secondary to primary voltages in a transformer equals the ratio of the number of loops in their coils; VsVp=NsNp
amplitude
the height, or magnitude, of an electromagnetic wave
amplitude modulation (AM)
a method for placing information on electromagnetic waves by modulating the amplitude of a carrier wave with an audio signal, resulting in a wave with constant frequency but varying amplitude
carrier wave
an electromagnetic wave that carries a signal by modulation of its amplitude or frequency
electric field
a vector quantity (E); the lines of electric force per unit charge, moving radially outward from a positive charge and in toward a negative charge
electric field lines
a pattern of imaginary lines that extend between an electric source and charged objects in the surrounding area, with arrows pointed away from positively charged objects and toward negatively charged objects. The more lines in the pattern, the stronger the electric field in that region
electric field strength
the magnitude of the electric field, denoted E-field
electromagnetic spectrum
the full range of wavelengths or frequencies of electromagnetic radiation
electromagnetic waves
radiation in the form of waves of electric and magnetic energy
electromotive force (emf)
energy produced per unit charge, drawn from a source that produces an electrical current
extremely low frequency (ELF)
electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths usually in the range of 0 to 300 Hz, but also about 1kHz
frequency
the number of complete wave cycles (up-down-up) passing a given point within one second (cycles/second)
frequency modulation (FM)
a method of placing information on electromagnetic waves by modulating the frequency of a carrier wave with an audio signal, producing a wave of constant amplitude but varying frequency
gamma ray
(γsize 12{g} {} ray); extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation emitted by the nucleus of an atom, either from natural nuclear decay or induced nuclear processes in nuclear reactors and weapons. The lower end of the γ-ray frequency range overlaps the upper end of the X-ray range, but γsize 12{g} {} rays can have the highest frequency of any electromagnetic radiation
hertz
an SI unit denoting the frequency of an electromagnetic wave, in cycles per second
a region of the electromagnetic spectrum with a frequency range that extends from just below the red region of the visible light spectrum up to the microwave region, or from 0.74μmsize 12{0 "." "74" μm} {} to 300μmsize 12{"300" μm} {}
intensity
the power of an electric or magnetic field per unit area, for example, Watts per square meter
magnetic field
a vector quantity (B); can be used to determine the magnetic force on a moving charged particle
magnetic field lines
a pattern of continuous, imaginary lines that emerge from and enter into opposite magnetic poles. The density of the lines indicates the magnitude of the magnetic field
magnetic field strength
the magnitude of the magnetic field, denoted B-field
maximum field strength
the maximum amplitude an electromagnetic wave can reach, representing the maximum amount of electric force and/or magnetic flux that the wave can exert
Maxwell’s equations
a set of four equations that comprise a complete, overarching theory of electromagnetism
microwaves
electromagnetic waves with wavelengths in the range from 1 mm to 1 m; they can be produced by currents in macroscopic circuits and devices
oscillate
to fluctuate back and forth in a steady beat
a common application of microwaves. Radar can determine the distance to objects as diverse as clouds and aircraft, as well as determine the speed of a car or the intensity of a rainstorm
electromagnetic waves with wavelengths in the range from 1 mm to 100 km; they are produced by currents in wires and circuits and by astronomical phenomena
resonant
a system that displays enhanced oscillation when subjected to a periodic disturbance of the same frequency as its natural frequency
RLC circuit
an electric circuit that includes a resistor, capacitor and inductor
speed of light
in a vacuum, such as space, the speed of light is a constant 3 x 108 m/s
standing wave
a wave that oscillates in place, with nodes where no motion happens
thermal agitation
the thermal motion of atoms and molecules in any object at a temperature above absolute zero, which causes them to emit and absorb radiation
transverse wave
a wave, such as an electromagnetic wave, which oscillates perpendicular to the axis along the line of travel
TV
video and audio signals broadcast on electromagnetic waves
ultra-high frequency (UHF)
TV channels in an even higher frequency range than VHF, of 470 to 1000 MHz
electromagnetic radiation in the range extending upward in frequency from violet light and overlapping with the lowest X-ray frequencies, with wavelengths from 400 nm down to about 10 nm
very high frequency (VHF)
TV channels utilizing frequencies in the two ranges of 54 to 88 MHz and 174 to 222 MHz
visible light
the narrow segment of the electromagnetic spectrum to which the normal human eye responds
wavelength
the distance from one peak to the next in a wave
X-ray
invisible, penetrating form of very high frequency electromagnetic radiation, overlapping both the ultraviolet range and the γsize 12{g} {}-ray range
converging lens
a convex lens in which light rays that enter it parallel to its axis converge at a single point on the opposite side
converging mirror
a concave mirror in which light rays that strike it parallel to its axis converge at one or more points along the axis
corner reflector
an object consisting of two mutually perpendicular reflecting surfaces, so that the light that enters is reflected back exactly parallel to the direction from which it came
critical angle
incident angle that produces an angle of refraction of 90ºsize 12{"90"°} {}
dispersion
spreading of white light into its full spectrum of wavelengths
diverging lens
a concave lens in which light rays that enter it parallel to its axis bend away (diverge) from its axis
diverging mirror
a convex mirror in which light rays that strike it parallel to its axis bend away (diverge) from its axis
fiber optics
transmission of light down fibers of plastic or glass, applying the principle of total internal reflection
focal length
distance from the center of a lens or curved mirror to its focal point
focal point
for a converging lens or mirror, the point at which converging light rays cross; for a diverging lens or mirror, the point from which diverging light rays appear to originate
geometric optics
part of optics dealing with the ray aspect of light
index of refraction
for a material, the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to that in the material
law of reflection
angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence
law of reflection
angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence
magnification
ratio of image height to object height
mirror
smooth surface that reflects light at specific angles, forming an image of the person or object in front of it
power
inverse of focal length
rainbow
dispersion of sunlight into a continuous distribution of colors according to wavelength, produced by the refraction and reflection of sunlight by water droplets in the sky
ray
straight line that originates at some point
real image
image that can be projected
refraction
changing of a light ray’s direction when it passes through variations in matter
virtual image
image that cannot be projected
zircon
natural gemstone with a large index of refraction
aberration
failure of rays to converge at one focus because of limitations or defects in a lens or mirror
accommodation
the ability of the eye to adjust its focal length is known as accommodation
optical technology in which computers adjust the lenses and mirrors in a device to correct for image distortions
angular magnification
a ratio related to the focal lengths of the objective and eyepiece and given as M=−fofe
astigmatism
the result of an inability of the cornea to properly focus an image onto the retina
color constancy
a part of the visual perception system that allows people to perceive color in a variety of conditions and to see some consistency in the color
compound microscope
a microscope constructed from two convex lenses, the first serving as the ocular lens(close to the eye) and the second serving as the objective lens
eyepiece
the lens or combination of lenses in an optical instrument nearest to the eye of the observer
far point
the object point imaged by the eye onto the retina in an unaccommodated eye
farsightedness
another term for hyperopia, the condition of an eye where incoming rays of light reach the retina before they converge into a focused image
hues
identity of a color as it relates specifically to the spectrum
hyperopia
the condition of an eye where incoming rays of light reach the retina before they converge into a focused image
laser vision correction
a medical procedure used to correct astigmatism and eyesight deficiencies such as myopia and hyperopia
myopia
a visual defect in which distant objects appear blurred because their images are focused in front of the retina rather than being focused on the retina
near point
the point nearest the eye at which an object is accurately focused on the retina at full accommodation
nearsightedness
another term for myopia, a visual defect in which distant objects appear blurred because their images are focused in front of the retina rather than being focused on the retina
numerical aperture
a number or measure that expresses the ability of a lens to resolve fine detail in an object being observed. Derived by mathematical formula NA=nsinα,size 12{ ital "NA"=n"sin"α}where nsize 12{n} is the refractive index of the medium between the lens and the specimen and α=θ/2size 12{α= {θ} slash {2} }
objective lens
the lens nearest to the object being examined
presbyopia
a condition in which the lens of the eye becomes progressively unable to focus on objects close to the viewer
retinex
a theory proposed to explain color and brightness perception and constancies; is a combination of the words retina and cortex, which are the two areas responsible for the processing of visual information
retinex theory of color vision
the ability to perceive color in an ambient-colored environment
rods and cones
two types of photoreceptors in the human retina; rods are responsible for vision at low light levels, while cones are active at higher light levels
simplified theory of color vision
a theory that states that there are three primary colors, which correspond to the three types of cones
axis of a polarizing filter
the direction along which the filter passes the electric field of an EM wave
birefringent
crystals that split an unpolarized beam of light into two beams
Brewster’s angle
θb=tan−1(n2n1),size 12{θ rSub { size 8{b} } ="tan" rSup { size 8{ - 1} } left ( { {n rSub { size 8{2} } } over {n rSub { size 8{1} } } } right ),} {} where n2 is the index of refraction of the medium from which the light is reflected and n1 is the index of refraction of the medium in which the reflected light travels
Brewster’s law
tanθb=n2n1, where n1 is the medium in which the incident and reflected light travel and n2 is the index of refraction of the medium that forms the interface that reflects the light
coherent
waves are in phase or have a definite phase relationship
confocal microscopes
microscopes that use the extended focal region to obtain three-dimensional images rather than two-dimensional images
constructive interference for a diffraction grating
occurs when the condition dsinθ=mλ(form=0,1,–1,2,–2,…) is satisfied, where dsize 12{d} {} is the distance between slits in the grating, λsize 12{λ} {} is the wavelength of light, and msize 12{m} {} is the order of the maximum
constructive interference for a double slit
the path length difference must be an integral multiple of the wavelength
contrast
the difference in intensity between objects and the background on which they are observed
destructive interference for a double slit
the path length difference must be a half-integral multiple of the wavelength
destructive interference for a single slit
occurs when Dsinθ=mλ,(form=1,–1,2,–2,3,…)size 12{D"sin"θ= ital "mλ",~m="1,""2,""3," dotslow } {}, where Dsize 12{D} {} is the slit width, λsize 12{λ} {} is the light’s wavelength, θsize 12{θ} {} is the angle relative to the original direction of the light, and msize 12{m} {} is the order of the minimum
diffraction
the bending of a wave around the edges of an opening or an obstacle
diffraction grating
a large number of evenly spaced parallel slits
direction of polarization
the direction parallel to the electric field for EM waves
horizontally polarized
the oscillations are in a horizontal plane
Huygens’s principle
every point on a wavefront is a source of wavelets that spread out in the forward direction at the same speed as the wave itself. The new wavefront is a line tangent to all of the wavelets
incoherent
waves have random phase relationships
interference microscopes
microscopes that enhance contrast between objects and background by superimposing a reference beam of light upon the light emerging from the sample
optically active
substances that rotate the plane of polarization of light passing through them
order
the integer msize 12{m} {} used in the equations for constructive and destructive interference for a double slit
phase-contrast microscope
microscope utilizing wave interference and differences in phases to enhance contrast
polarization
the attribute that wave oscillations have a definite direction relative to the direction of propagation of the wave
polarization microscope
microscope that enhances contrast by utilizing a wave characteristic of light, useful for objects that are optically active
polarized
waves having the electric and magnetic field oscillations in a definite direction
Rayleigh criterion
two images are just resolvable when the center of the diffraction pattern of one is directly over the first minimum of the diffraction pattern of the other
reflected light that is completely polarized
light reflected at the angle of reflection θbsize 12{θ rSub { size 8{b} } } {}, known as Brewster’s angle
thin film interference
interference between light reflected from different surfaces of a thin film
ultraviolet (UV) microscopes
microscopes constructed with special lenses that transmit UV rays and utilize photographic or electronic techniques to record images
unpolarized
waves that are randomly polarized
vertically polarized
the oscillations are in a vertical plane
wavelength in a medium
λn=λ/nsize 12{λ rSub { size 8{n} } =λ/n} {}, where λsize 12{λ} {} is the wavelength in vacuum, and nsize 12{n} {} is the index of refraction of the medium
the method of adding velocities when v<<csize 12{v"<<"c} {}; velocities add like regular numbers in one-dimensional motion: u=v+u', where v is the velocity between two observers, u is the velocity of an object relative to one observer, and u' is the velocity relative to the other observer
first postulate of special relativity
the idea that the laws of physics are the same and can be stated in their simplest form in all inertial frames of reference
inertial frame of reference
a reference frame in which a body at rest remains at rest and a body in motion moves at a constant speed in a straight line unless acted on by an outside force
length contraction
Lsize 12{L} {}, the shortening of the measured length of an object moving relative to the observer’s frame: L=L01−v2c2−−−−−√=L0γsize 12{ ital "L=L" rSub { size 8{0} } sqrt {1 - { {v rSup { size 8{2} } } over {c rSup { size 8{2} } } } } = { {L rSub { size 8{0} } } over {γ} } } {}
Michelson-Morley experiment
an investigation performed in 1887 that proved that the speed of light in a vacuum is the same in all frames of reference from which it is viewed
proper length
L0size 12{L rSub { size 8{0} } } {}; the distance between two points measured by an observer who is at rest relative to both of the points; Earth-bound observers measure proper length when measuring the distance between two points that are stationary relative to the Earth
proper time
Δt0. the time measured by an observer at rest relative to the event being observed: Δt=Δt01−v2c2√=γΔt0, where γ=11−v2c2√
relativistic Doppler effects
a change in wavelength of radiation that is moving relative to the observer; the wavelength of the radiation is longer (called a red shift) than that emitted by the source when the source moves away from the observer and shorter (called a blue shift) when the source moves toward the observer; the shifted wavelength is described by the equation λobs=λs1+uc1−uc−−−−√ where λobs is the observed wavelength, λs is the source wavelength, and u is the velocity of the source to the observer
relativistic kinetic energy
the kinetic energy of an object moving at relativistic speeds: KErel=(γ−1)mc2size 12{"KE" rSub { size 8{"rel"} } = left (γ - 1 right ) ital "mc" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}, where γ=11−v2c2√
relativistic momentum
psize 12{p} {}, the momentum of an object moving at relativistic velocity; p=γmusize 12{p= ital "γmu"} {}, where msize 12{m} {} is the rest mass of the object, usize 12{u} {} is its velocity relative to an observer, and the relativistic factor γ=11−u2c2√size 12{γ= { {1} over { sqrt {1 - { {u rSup { size 8{2} } } over {c rSup { size 8{2} } } } } } } } {}
the method of adding velocities of an object moving at a relativistic speed: u=v+u'1+vu'c2, where vsize 12{v} {} is the relative velocity between two observers, usize 12{u} {} is the velocity of an object relative to one observer, and u'size 12{u rSup { size 8{'} } } {} is the velocity relative to the other observer
relativity
the study of how different observers measure the same event
rest energy
the energy stored in an object at rest: E0=mc2
rest mass
the mass of an object as measured by a person at rest relative to the object
second postulate of special relativity
the idea that the speed of light csize 12{c} {} is a constant, independent of the source
special relativity
the theory that, in an inertial frame of reference, the motion of an object is relative to the frame from which it is viewed or measured
time dilation
the phenomenon of time passing slower to an observer who is moving relative to another observer
total energy
defined as E=γmc2, where γ=11−v2c2√
this asks why a twin traveling at a relativistic speed away and then back towards the Earth ages less than the Earth-bound twin. The premise to the paradox is faulty because the traveling twin is accelerating, and special relativity does not apply to accelerating frames of reference
atomic spectra
the electromagnetic emission from atoms and molecules
binding energy
also called the work function; the amount of energy necessary to eject an electron from a material
blackbody
the electromagnetic radiation from a blackbody
bremsstrahlung
German for braking radiation; produced when electrons are decelerated
characteristic x rays
x rays whose energy depends on the material they were produced in
Compton effect
the phenomenon whereby x rays scattered from materials have decreased energy
correspondence principle
in the classical limit (large, slow-moving objects), quantum mechanics becomes the same as classical physics
de Broglie wavelength
the wavelength possessed by a particle of matter, calculated by λ=h/psize 12{λ = h/p} {}
gamma ray
also γsize 12{γ} {}-ray; highest-energy photon in the EM spectrum
Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle
a fundamental limit to the precision with which pairs of quantities (momentum and position, and energy and time) can be measured
photons with energies slightly less than red light
radiation that ionizes materials that absorb it
microwaves
photons with wavelengths on the order of a micron (μmsize 12{"μm"} {})
particle-wave duality
the property of behaving like either a particle or a wave; the term for the phenomenon that all particles have wave characteristics
photoelectric effect
the phenomenon whereby some materials eject electrons when light is shined on them
photon
a quantum, or particle, of electromagnetic radiation
photon energy
the amount of energy a photon has; E=hfsize 12{E = ital "hf"} {}
photon momentum
the amount of momentum a photon has, calculated by p=hλ=Ecsize 12{p = { {h} over {λ} } = { {E} over {c} } } {}
Planck’s constant
h=6.626×10–34J⋅ssize 12{h = 6 "." "626" times " 10" rSup { size 8{"–34"} } " J " cdot " s"} {}
probability distribution
the overall spatial distribution of probabilities to find a particle at a given location
quantized
the fact that certain physical entities exist only with particular discrete values and not every conceivable value
quantum mechanics
the branch of physics that deals with small objects and with the quantization of various entities, especially energy
UV; ionizing photons slightly more energetic than violet light
uncertainty in energy
lack of precision or lack of knowledge of precise results in measurements of energy
uncertainty in momentum
lack of precision or lack of knowledge of precise results in measurements of momentum
uncertainty in position
lack of precision or lack of knowledge of precise results in measurements of position
uncertainty in time
lack of precision or lack of knowledge of precise results in measurements of time
visible light
the range of photon energies the human eye can detect
x ray
EM photon between γsize 12{γ} {}-ray and UV in energy
angular momentum quantum number
a quantum number associated with the angular momentum of electrons
atom
basic unit of matter, which consists of a central, positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons
atomic de-excitation
process by which an atom transfers from an excited electronic state back to the ground state electronic configuration; often occurs by emission of a photon
atomic excitation
a state in which an atom or ion acquires the necessary energy to promote one or more of its electrons to electronic states higher in energy than their ground state
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
the mean radius of the orbit of an electron around the nucleus of a hydrogen atom in its ground state
Brownian motion
the continuous random movement of particles of matter suspended in a liquid or gas
cathode-ray tube
a vacuum tube containing a source of electrons and a screen to view images
double-slit interference
an experiment in which waves or particles from a single source impinge upon two slits so that the resulting interference pattern may be observed
energies of hydrogen-like atoms
Bohr formula for energies of electron states in hydrogen-like atoms: En=−Z2n2E0(n=1, 2, 3,…)
energy-level diagram
a diagram used to analyze the energy level of electrons in the orbits of an atom
fine structure
the splitting of spectral lines of the hydrogen spectrum when the spectral lines are examined at very high resolution
fluorescence
any process in which an atom or molecule, excited by a photon of a given energy, de-excites by emission of a lower-energy photon
hologram
means entire picture (from the Greek word holo, as in holistic), because the image produced is three dimensional
holography
the process of producing holograms
hydrogen spectrum wavelengths
the wavelengths of visible light from hydrogen; can be calculated by 1λ=R(1n2f−1n2i)size 12{ { {1} over {λ} } =R left ( { {1} over {n rSub { size 8{f} } rSup { size 8{2} } } } - { {1} over {n rSub { size 8{i} } rSup { size 8{2} } } } right )} {}
hydrogen-like atom
any atom with only a single electron
intrinsic magnetic field
the magnetic field generated due to the intrinsic spin of electrons
intrinsic spin
the internal or intrinsic angular momentum of electrons
laser
acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
magnitude of the intrinsic (internal) spin angular momentum
given by S=s(s+1)−−−−−−−√h2π
metastable
a state whose lifetime is an order of magnitude longer than the most short-lived states
orbital angular momentum
an angular momentum that corresponds to the quantum analog of classical angular momentum
orbital magnetic field
the magnetic field generated due to the orbital motion of electrons
Pauli exclusion principle
a principle that states that no two electrons can have the same set of quantum numbers; that is, no two electrons can be in the same state
phosphorescence
the de-excitation of a metastable state
planetary model of the atom
the most familiar model or illustration of the structure of the atom
population inversion
the condition in which the majority of atoms in a sample are in a metastable state
quantum numbers
the values of quantized entities, such as energy and angular momentum
Rydberg constant
a physical constant related to the atomic spectra with an established value of 1.097×107m−1
shell
a probability cloud for electrons that has a single principal quantum number
space quantization
the fact that the orbital angular momentum can have only certain directions
spin projection quantum number
quantum number that can be used to calculate the intrinsic electron angular momentum along the z-axis
spin quantum number
the quantum number that parameterizes the intrinsic angular momentum (or spin angular momentum, or simply spin) of a given particle
stimulated emission
emission by atom or molecule in which an excited state is stimulated to decay, most readily caused by a photon of the same energy that is necessary to excite the state
subshell
the probability cloud for electrons that has a single angular momentum quantum number l
x rays
x-ray diffraction
a technique that provides the detailed information about crystallographic structure of natural and manufactured materials
z-component of spin angular momentum
component of intrinsic electron spin along the z-axis
z-component of the angular momentum
component of orbital angular momentum of electron along the z-axis
Zeeman effect
the effect of external magnetic fields on spectral lines
activity
the rate of decay for radioactive nuclides
alpha decay
type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle
alpha rays
one of the types of rays emitted from the nucleus of an atom
antielectron
another term for positron
antimatter
composed of antiparticles
atomic mass
the total mass of the protons, neutrons, and electrons in a single atom
atomic number
number of protons in a nucleus
barrier penetration
quantum mechanical effect whereby a particle has a nonzero probability to cross through a potential energy barrier despite not having sufficient energy to pass over the barrier; also called quantum mechanical tunneling
becquerel
SI unit for rate of decay of a radioactive material
beta decay
type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits a beta particle
beta rays
one of the types of rays emitted from the nucleus of an atom
binding energy
the energy needed to separate nucleus into individual protons and neutrons
binding energy per nucleon
the binding energy calculated per nucleon; it reveals the details of the nuclear force—larger the BE/Asize 12{"BE"/A} {}, the more stable the nucleus
carbon-14 dating
chart of the nuclides
a table comprising stable and unstable nuclei
curie
the activity of 1g of 226Ra, equal to 3.70×1010Bqsize 12{3 "." "70" times "10" rSup { size 8{"10"} } " Bq"} {}
daughter
the nucleus obtained when parent nucleus decays and produces another nucleus following the rules and the conservation laws
decay
the process by which an atomic nucleus of an unstable atom loses mass and energy by emitting ionizing particles
decay constant
quantity that is inversely proportional to the half-life and that is used in equation for number of nuclei as a function of time
decay equation
the equation to find out how much of a radioactive material is left after a given period of time
decay series
process whereby subsequent nuclides decay until a stable nuclide is produced
electron capture
the process in which a proton-rich nuclide absorbs an inner atomic electron and simultaneously emits a neutrino
electron capture equation
equation representing the electron capture
electron’s antineutrino
antiparticle of electron’s neutrino
electron’s neutrino
a subatomic elementary particle which has no net electric charge
gamma decay
type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits a gamma particle
gamma rays
one of the types of rays emitted from the nucleus of an atom
Geiger tube
a very common radiation detector that usually gives an audio output
half-life
the time in which there is a 50% chance that a nucleus will decay
radiation (whether nuclear in origin or not) that produces ionization whether nuclear in origin or not
isotopes
nuclei having the same Zsize 12{Z} {} and different Nsize 12{Ns} {}s
magic numbers
a number that indicates a shell structure for the nucleus in which closed shells are more stable
mass number
number of nucleons in a nucleus
neutrino
an electrically neutral, weakly interacting elementary subatomic particle
neutron
a neutral particle that is found in a nucleus
rays that originate in the nuclei of atoms, the first examples of which were discovered by Becquerel
nuclear reaction energy
the energy created in a nuclear reaction
nucleons
the particles found inside nuclei
nucleus
a region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom
nuclide
a type of atom whose nucleus has specific numbers of protons and neutrons
parent
the original state of nucleus before decay
photomultiplier
a device that converts light into electrical signals
positron
the particle that results from positive beta decay; also known as an antielectron
positron decay
type of beta decay in which a proton is converted to a neutron, releasing a positron and a neutrino
protons
the positively charged nucleons found in a nucleus
quantum mechanical tunneling
quantum mechanical effect whereby a particle has a nonzero probability to cross through a potential energy barrier despite not having sufficient energy to pass over the barrier; also called barrier penetration
a device that is used to detect and track the radiation from a radioactive reaction
a substance or object that emits nuclear radiation
an application of radioactive decay in which the age of a material is determined by the amount of radioactivity of a particular type that occurs
the emission of rays from the nuclei of atoms
the radius of a nucleus is r=r0A1/3size 12{r=r rSub { size 8{0} } A rSup { size 8{1/3} } } {}
the distance that the radiation can travel through a material
rate of decay
the number of radioactive events per unit time
scintillators
a radiation detection method that records light produced when radiation interacts with materials
semiconductors fabricated to directly convert incident radiation into electrical current
tunneling
a quantum mechanical process of potential energy barrier penetration
Anger camera
a common medical imaging device that uses a scintillator connected to a series of photomultipliers
break-even
when fusion power produced equals the heating power input
breeder reactors
reactors that are designed specifically to make plutonium
breeding
reaction process that produces 239Pu
critical mass
minimum amount necessary for self-sustained fission of a given nuclide
criticality
condition in which a chain reaction easily becomes self-sustaining
fission fragments
a daughter nuclei
treatment of food with ionizing radiation
ions with unstable oxygen- or hydrogen-containing molecules
gamma camera
another name for an Anger camera
gray (Gy)
the SI unit for radiation dose which is defined to be 1 Gy=1 J/kg=100 radsize 12{1"Gy"=1"J/kg"="100""rad"} {}
high dose
a dose greater than 1 Sv (100 rem)
hormesis
a term used to describe generally favorable biological responses to low exposures of toxins or radiation
ignition
when a fusion reaction produces enough energy to be self-sustaining after external energy input is cut off
inertial confinement
a technique that aims multiple lasers at tiny fuel pellets evaporating and crushing them to high density
linear hypothesis
assumption that risk is directly proportional to risk from high doses
liquid drop model
a model of nucleus (only to understand some of its features) in which nucleons in a nucleus act like atoms in a drop
low dose
a dose less than 100 mSv (10 rem)
magnetic confinement
a technique in which charged particles are trapped in a small region because of difficulty in crossing magnetic field lines
moderate dose
a dose from 0.1 Sv to 1 Sv (10 to 100 rem)
neutron-induced fission
fission that is initiated after the absorption of neutron
nuclear fission
reaction in which a nucleus splits
nuclear fusion
a reaction in which two nuclei are combined, or fused, to form a larger nucleus
positron emission tomography (PET)
tomography technique that uses β+size 12{β rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} emitters and detects the two annihilation γsize 12{γ} {} rays, aiding in source localization
proton-proton cycle
the combined reactions 1H+1H→2H+e++ve, 1H+2H→3He+γ, and 3He+3He→4He+1H+1H
quality factor
same as relative biological effectiveness
the ionizing energy deposited per kilogram of tissue
compounds produced due to chemical reactions of free radicals
compound used for medical imaging
the use of ionizing radiation to treat ailments
relative biological effectiveness (RBE)
a number that expresses the relative amount of damage that a fixed amount of ionizing radiation of a given type can inflict on biological tissues
roentgen equivalent man (rem)
a dose unit more closely related to effects in biological tissue
shielding
a technique to limit radiation exposure
sievert
the SI equivalent of the rem
single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)
tomography performed with γsize 12{γ} {}-emitting radiopharmaceuticals
supercriticality
an exponential increase in fissions
tagged
process of attaching a radioactive substance to a chemical compound
therapeutic ratio
the ratio of abnormal cells killed to normal cells killed
baryon number
a conserved physical quantity that is zero for mesons and leptons and ±1size 12{ +- 1} {} for baryons and antibaryons, respectively
baryons
hadrons that always decay to another baryon
boson
particle with zero or an integer value of intrinsic spin
bottom
a quark flavor
charm
a quark flavor, which is the counterpart of the strange quark
colliding beams
head-on collisions between particles moving in opposite directions
color
a quark flavor
conservation of total baryon number
a general rule based on the observation that the total number of nucleons was always conserved in nuclear reactions and decays
conservation of total electron family number
a general rule stating that the total electron family number stays the same through an interaction
conservation of total muon family number
a general rule stating that the total muon family number stays the same through an interaction
cyclotron
accelerator that uses fixed-frequency alternating electric fields and fixed magnets to accelerate particles in a circular spiral path
down
the second-lightest of all quarks
electron family number
the number ±1size 12{ +- 1} {} that is assigned to all members of the electron family, or the number 0 that is assigned to all particles not in the electron family
electroweak theory
theory showing connections between EM and weak forces
fermion
particle with a half-integer value of intrinsic spin
Feynman diagram
a graph of time versus position that describes the exchange of virtual particles between subatomic particles
flavors
quark type
fundamental particle
particle with no substructure
gauge boson
particle that carries one of the four forces
gluons
exchange particles, analogous to the exchange of photons that gives rise to the electromagnetic force between two charged particles
gluons
eight proposed particles which carry the strong force
grand unified theory
theory that shows unification of the strong and electroweak forces
particles that feel the strong nuclear force
Higgs boson
a massive particle that, if observed, would give validity to the theory that carrier particles are identical under certain circumstances
leptons
particles that do not feel the strong nuclear force
linear accelerator
accelerator that accelerates particles in a straight line
meson
particle whose mass is intermediate between the electron and nucleon masses
meson
muon family number
the number ±1size 12{ +- 1} {} that is assigned to all members of the muon family, or the number 0 that is assigned to all particles not in the muon family
particle physics
the study of and the quest for those truly fundamental particles having no substructure
pion
particle exchanged between nucleons, transmitting the force between them
quantum chromodynamics
quark theory including color
quantum chromodynamics
the governing theory of connecting quantum number color to gluons
quantum electrodynamics
the theory of electromagnetism on the particle scale
quark
an elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter
standard model
combination of quantum chromodynamics and electroweak theory
strange
the third lightest of all quarks
strangeness
a physical quantity assigned to various particles based on decay systematics
superstring theory
a theory of everything based on vibrating strings some 10−35m in length
synchrotron
a version of a cyclotron in which the frequency of the alternating voltage and the magnetic field strength are increased as the beam particles are accelerated
radiation caused by a magnetic field accelerating a charged particle perpendicular to its velocity
tau family number
the number ±1size 12{ +- 1} {} that is assigned to all members of the tau family, or the number 0 that is assigned to all particles not in the tau family
theory of quark confinement
explains how quarks can exist and yet never be isolated or directly observed
top
a quark flavor
up
the lightest of all quarks
Van de Graaff
early accelerator: simple, large-scale version of the electron gun
virtual particles
particles which cannot be directly observed but their effects can be directly observed
stress
ratio of force to area
strain
ratio of change in length to original length
Stokes’ law
Fs=6πrηvsize 12{F rSub { size 8{s} } =6πrηv} {}, where r is the radius of the object, η is the viscosity of the fluid, and v is the object’s velocity
static friction
a force that opposes the motion of two systems that are in contact and are not moving relative to one another
shear deformation
deformation perpendicular to the original length of an object
magnitude of static friction
fs≤μsNsize 12{f rSub { size 8{s} } <= μ rSub { size 8{s} } N} {}, where μs is the coefficient of static friction and N is the magnitude of the normal force
magnitude of kinetic friction
fk=μkNsize 12{f rSub { size 8{k} } =μ rSub { size 8{k} } N} {}, where μksize 12{μ rSub { size 8{K} } } {} is the coefficient of kinetic friction
kinetic friction
a force that opposes the motion of two systems that are in contact and moving relative to one another
Hooke’s law
proportional relationship between the force F on a material and the deformation ΔL it causes, F=kΔLsize 12{F=kΔL} {}
friction
a force that opposes relative motion or attempts at motion between systems in contact
drag force
FDsize 12{F rSub { size 8{D} } } {}, found to be proportional to the square of the speed of the object; mathematically FD∝v2size 12{F rSub { size 8{D} } prop `v rSup { size 8{2} } } FD=12CρAv2,size 12{F rSub { size 8{D} } = { {1} over {2} } Cρ ital "Av" rSup { size 8{2} } } where Csize 12{C} {} is the drag coefficient, Asize 12{A} {} is the area of the object facing the fluid, and ρsize 12{ρ} {} is the density of the fluid
deformation
change in shape due to the application of force
weight
the force wsize 12{w} {}due to gravity acting on an object of mass msize 12{m} {}; defined mathematically as: w=mgsize 12{w=mg} {}, where gsize 12{g} {} is the magnitude and direction of the acceleration due to gravity