# 9.3: Footnotes


1. Alpha decay is more common because an alpha particle happens to be a very stable arrangement of protons and neutrons.
2. The evidence for the big bang theory of the origin of the universe was discussed on p. 356.
3. For two opposing viewpoints, see Tubiana et al., “The Linear No-Threshold Relationship Is Inconsistent with Radiation Biologic and Experimental Data,” Radiology, 251 (2009) 13 and Little et al., “ Risks Associated with Low Doses and Low Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiation: Why Linearity May Be (Almost) the Best We Can Do,” Radiology, 251 (2009) 6.
4. Baker and Chesser, Env. Toxicology and Chem. 19 (1231) 2000. Similar effects have been seen at the Bikini Atoll, the site of a 1954 hydrogen bomb test. Although some species have disappeared from the area, the coral reef is in many ways healthier than similar reefs elsewhere, because humans have tended to stay away for fear of radiation (Richards et al., Marine Pollution Bulletin 56 (2008) 503).
5. The evidence for the big bang theory of the origin of the universe was discussed in book 3 of this series.

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