# Table of Contents

- Page ID
- 32290

## 1: Electric Charges and Fields

In this chapter, we begin the study of the electric force, which acts on all objects with a property called charge. The electric force is much stronger than gravity (in most systems where both appear), but it can be a force of attraction or a force of repulsion, which leads to very different effects on objects. The electric force helps keep atoms together, so it is of fundamental importance in matter.## 2: Gauss's Law

So far, we have found that the electrostatic field begins and ends at point charges and that the field of a point charge varies inversely with the square of the distance from that charge. These characteristics of the electrostatic field lead to an important mathematical relationship known as Gauss’s law. Gauss’s law gives us an elegantly simple way of finding the electric field, and, as you will see, it can be much easier to use than the integration method described in the previous chapter.## 3: Electric Potential

In this chapter, we examine the relationship between voltage and electrical energy, and begin to explore some of the many applications of electricity.## 4: Current and Resistance

In this chapter, we study the electrical current through a material, where the electrical current is the rate of flow of charge. We also examine a characteristic of materials known as the resistance. Resistance is a measure of how much a material impedes the flow of charge, and it will be shown that the resistance depends on temperature. In general, a good conductor, such as copper, gold, or silver, has very low resistance.## 5: Direct-Current Circuits

In this chapter, we use these electric components in circuits. A circuit is a collection of electrical components connected to accomplish a specific task. The second section of this chapter covers the analysis of series and parallel circuits that consist of resistors. We also introduce the basic equations and techniques to analyze any circuit, including those that are not reducible through simplifying parallel and series elements. But first, we need to understand how to power a circuit.## 6: Magnetic Forces and Fields

For the past few chapters, we have been studying electrostatic forces and fields, which are caused by electric charges at rest. These electric fields can move other free charges, such as producing a current in a circuit; however, the electrostatic forces and fields themselves come from other static charges. In this chapter, we see that when an electric charge moves, it generates other forces and fields. These additional forces and fields are what we commonly call magnetism.## 7: Sources of Magnetic Fields

In this chapter, we examine how magnetic fields are created by arbitrary distributions of electric current, using the Biot-Savart law. Then we look at how current-carrying wires create magnetic fields and deduce the forces that arise between two current-carrying wires due to these magnetic fields. We also study the torques produced by the magnetic fields of current loops. We then generalize these results to an important law of electromagnetism, called Ampère’s law.## 8: Electromagnetic Induction

In this and the next several chapters, you will see a wonderful symmetry in the behavior exhibited by time-varying electric and magnetic fields. Mathematically, this symmetry is expressed by an additional term in Ampère’s law and by another key equation of electromagnetism called Faraday’s law. We also discuss how moving a wire through a magnetic field produces an emf or voltage.## 9: The Nature of Light

In this chapter, we study the basic properties of light. In the next few chapters, we investigate the behavior of light when it interacts with optical devices such as mirrors, lenses, and apertures.## 10: Geometric Optics and Image Formation

This chapter introduces the major ideas of geometric optics, which describe the formation of images due to reflection and refraction.## 11: Interference

The most certain indication of a wave is interference. This wave characteristic is most prominent when the wave interacts with an object that is not large compared with the wavelength. Interference is observed for water waves, sound waves, light waves, and, in fact, all types of waves.## 12: Diffraction

In the preceding chapter, we implicitly regarded slits as objects with positions but no size. The widths of the slits were considered negligible. When the slits have finite widths, each point along the opening can be considered a point source of light—a foundation of Huygens’s principle. Because real-world optical instruments must have finite apertures (otherwise, no light can enter), diffraction plays a major role in the way we interpret the output of these optical instruments.