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• ## 8: Waves

• ### 8.1: Introduction to Waves

In this section we will familiarize ourselves with waves by concentrating on material waves. These are the disturbances of atoms or molecules of a particular substance. Any sort of ripple that you have seen is a material wave; sound is a material wave. There are other types of waves such as light or matter waves which are not as easy to visualize, and we shall postpone detailed discussion of these waves until later.

• ## 9: Optics

• ### 9.1: Rays and Wavefronts

In this chapter we will be dealing with waves that travel from one medium to another. In such a case two things can happen: part of the wave can bounce back into the original medium which we refer to as reflection, and part of the wave can travel into the next medium, a transmission. When a wave travels into a new medium the wave is typically "bent" or deformed in some way, a phenomenon we call refraction.

• ## 10: Electromagnetism

• ### 10.1: Fields

Fields are used in almost every part of physics. In Physics 7C we will concentrate on the gravitational, electric and magnetic fields. We have some experience dealing with gravity from Physics 7A and 7B, so we will gain our intuition on fields from concentrating on gravity. After discussing the gravitational field, we will not be able to do anything we could not before, but it should make discussing less familiar fields easier.