In this chapter we shall concentrate on the experimental tools used in nuclear and particle physics. Mainly the present ones, but it is hard to avoid discussing some of the history.
- 3.1: Accelerators
- Both nuclear and particle physics experiments are typically performed at accelerators, where particles are accelerated to extremely high energies, in most cases relativistic (i.e., v≈c ). We can distinguish accelerators in two ways. One is whether the particles are accelerated along straight lines or along (approximate) circles. The other distinction is whether we used a DC (or slowly varying AC) voltage, or whether we use radio-frequency AC voltage, as is the case in most modern accelerators
- 3.2: Targets
- There are two ways to make the necessary collisions with the accelerated beam: Fixed target and colliding beams.
- 3.3: Main Experimental Facilities
- Let me first list a couple of facilities with there energies, and then discuss the facilities one-by-one.
- 3.4: Detectors
- Detectors are used for various measurements on the physical processes occurring in particle physics. The most important of those are To identify particles. To measure positions. To measure time differences. To measure momentum. To measure energy. Let me now go over some of the different pieces of machinery used to perform such measurements
Thumbnail: A sketch of a cyclotron.