# Book: College Physics (OpenStax)

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- 1: The Nature of Science and Physics
- 2: Kinematics
- 2.0: Prelude to One-Dimensional Kinematics
- 2.1: Displacement
- 2.2: Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems
- 2.3: Time, Velocity, and Speed
- 2.4: Acceleration
- 2.5: Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension
- 2.6: Problem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional Kinematics
- 2.7: Falling Objects
- 2.8: Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion
- 2.E: Kinematics (Exercises)

- 3: Two-Dimensional Kinematics
- 4: Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion
- 4.0: Prelude to Dynamics: Newton’s Laws of Motion
- 4.1: Development of Force Concept
- 4.2: Newton’s First Law of Motion: Inertia
- 4.3: Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System
- 4.4: Newton’s Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces
- 4.5: Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Forces
- 4.6: Problem-Solving Strategies
- 4.7: Further Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion
- 4.8: Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction
- 4.E: Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion (Exercises)

- 5: Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity
- 6: Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation
- 6.0: Prelude to Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation
- 6.1: Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity
- 6.2: Centripetal Acceleration
- 6.3: Centripetal Force
- 6.4: Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames - The Coriolis Force
- 6.5: Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
- 6.6: Satellites and Kepler’s Laws: An Argument for Simplicity
- 6.E: Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation (Excercise)

- 7: Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
- 7.0: Prelude to Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
- 7.1: Work: The Scientific Definition
- 7.2: Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem
- 7.3: Gravitational Potential Energy
- 7.4: Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
- 7.5: Nonconservative Forces
- 7.6: Conservation of Energy
- 7.7: Power
- 7.8: Work, Energy, and Power in Humans
- 7.9: World Energy Use
- 7.E: Work, Energy, and Energy Resources (Exercise)

- 8: Linear Momentum and Collisions
- 8.0: Prelude to Linear Momentum and Collisions
- 8.1: Linear Momentum and Force
- 8.2: Impulse
- 8.3: Conservation of Momentum
- 8.4: Elastic Collisions in One Dimension
- 8.5: Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension
- 8.6: Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions
- 8.7: Introduction to Rocket Propulsion
- 8.E: Linear Momentum and Collisions (Exercises)

- 9: Statics and Torque
- 10: Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
- 10.0: Prelude to Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
- 10.1: Angular Acceleration
- 10.2: Kinematics of Rotational Motion
- 10.3: Dynamics of Rotational Motion - Rotational Inertia
- 10.4: Rotational Kinetic Energy - Work and Energy Revisited
- 10.5: Angular Momentum and Its Conservation
- 10.6: Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions
- 10.7: Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum
- 10.E: Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum (Exercises)

- 11: Fluid Statics
- 11.0: Prelude to Fluid Statics
- 11.1: What Is a Fluid?
- 11.2: Density
- 11.3: Pressure
- 11.4: Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid
- 11.5: Pascal’s Principle
- 11.6: Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement
- 11.7: Archimedes’ Principle
- 11.8: Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids - Surface Tension and Capillary Action
- 11.9: Pressures in the Body
- 11.E: Fluid Statics (Exercises)

- 12: Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
- 12.0: Prelude to Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
- 12.1: Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity
- 12.2: Bernoulli’s Equation
- 12.3: The Most General Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
- 12.4: Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille’s Law
- 12.5: The Onset of Turbulence
- 12.6: Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid
- 12.7: Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes
- 12.E: Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications (Exercises)

- 13: Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws
- 13.0: Prelude to Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws
- 13.1: Temperature
- 13.2: Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids
- 13.3: The Ideal Gas Law
- 13.4: Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature
- 13.5: Phase Changes
- 13.6: Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling
- 13.E: Work, Energy, and Energy Resources (Exercise)

- 14: Heat and Heat Transfer Methods
- 15: Thermodynamics
- 15.0: Prelude to Thermodynamics
- 15.1: The First Law of Thermodynamics
- 15.2: The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes
- 15.3: Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency
- 15.4: Carnot’s Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated
- 15.5: Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators
- 15.6: Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy
- 15.7: Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation
- 15.E: Heat and Heat Transfer Methods (Exercise)

- 16: Oscillatory Motion and Waves
- 16.0: Prelude to Oscillatory Motion and Waves
- 16.1: Hooke’s Law - Stress and Strain Revisited
- 16.2: Period and Frequency in Oscillations
- 16.3: Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion
- 16.4: The Simple Pendulum
- 16.5: Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
- 16.6: Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion
- 16.7: Damped Harmonic Motion
- 16.8: Forced Oscillations and Resonance
- 16.9: Waves
- 16.10: Superposition and Interference
- 16.11: Energy in Waves: Intensity
- 16.E: Oscillatory Motion and Waves (Exercises)

- 17: Physics of Hearing
- 17.0: Prelude to the Physics of Hearing
- 17.1: Sound
- 17.2: Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
- 17.3: Sound Intensity and Sound Level
- 17.4: Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
- 17.5: Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns
- 17.6: Hearing
- 17.7: Ultrasound
- 17.E: Physics of Hearing (Exercises)

- 18: Electric Charge and Electric Field
- 18.0: Prelude to Electric Charge and Electric Field
- 18.1: Static Electricity and Charge - Conservation of Charge
- 18.2: Conductors and Insulators
- 18.3: Coulomb's Law
- 18.4: Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited
- 18.5: Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges
- 18.6: Electric Forces in Biology
- 18.7: Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium
- 18.8: Applications of Electrostatics
- 18.E: Electric Charge and Electric Field (Exercises)

- 19: Electric Potential and Electric Field
- 19.0: Introduction to Electric Potential and Electric Energy
- 19.1: Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference
- 19.2: Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field
- 19.3: Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge
- 19.4: Equipotential Lines
- 19.5: Capacitors and Dielectrics
- 19.6: Capacitors in Series and Parallel
- 19.7: Energy Stored in Capacitors
- 19.E: Exercises

- 20: Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law
- 20.0: Prelude to Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law
- 20.1: Current
- 20.2: Ohm’s Law - Resistance and Simple Circuits
- 20.3: Resistance and Resistivity
- 20.4 Electric Power and Energy
- 20.5: Alternating Current versus Direct Current
- 20.6: Electric Hazards and the Human Body
- 20.7: Nerve Conduction–Electrocardiograms
- 20.E: Heat and Heat Transfer Methods (Exercise)

- 21: Circuits, Bioelectricity, and DC Instruments
- 21.0: Prelude to Circuits and DC Instruments
- 21.1: Resistors in Series and Parallel
- 21.2: Electromotive Force - Terminal Voltage
- 21.3: Kirchhoff’s Rules
- 21.4: DC Voltmeters and Ammeters
- 21.5: Null Measurements
- 21.6: DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors
- 21.E: Circuits and DC Instruments (Exercise)

- 22: Magnetism
- 22.0: Prelude to Magnetism
- 22.1: Magnets
- 22.2: Ferromagnets and Electromagnets
- 22.3: Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines
- 22.4: Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
- 22.5: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications
- 22.6: The Hall Effect
- 22.7: Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
- 22.8: Torque on a Current Loop - Motors and Meters
- 22.10: Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors
- 22.11: More Applications of Magnetism
- 22.9: Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law
- 22.E: Magnetism (Exercises)

- 23: Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies
- 23.0: Prelude to Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits and Electrical Technologies
- 23.10: RL Circuits
- 23.11: Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive
- 23.12: RLC Series AC Circuits
- 23.1: Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux
- 23.2: Faraday’s Law of Induction: Lenz’s Law
- 23.3: Motional Emf
- 23.4: Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping
- 23.5: Electric Generators
- 23.6: Back Emf
- 23.7: Transformers
- 23.8: Electrical Safety - Systems and Devices
- 23.9: Inductance
- 23.E: Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies (Exercise)

- 24: Electromagnetic Waves
- 25: Geometric Optics
- 26: Vision and Optical Instruments
- 27: Wave Optics
- 27.0: Introduction to Wave Optics
- 27.1: The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference
- 27.2: Huygens's Principle: Diffraction
- 27.3: Young’s Double Slit Experiment
- 27.4: Multiple Slit Diffraction
- 27.5: Single Slit Diffraction
- 27.6: Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion
- 27.7: Thin Film Interference
- 27.8: Polarization
- 27.9:*Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light
- 27.E: Vision and Optical Instruments (Exercise)

- 28: Special Relativity
- 29: Introduction to Quantum Physics
- 29.0: Prelude to Quantum Physics
- 29.1: Quantization of Energy
- 29.2: The Photoelectric Effect
- 29.3: Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
- 29.4: Photon Momentum
- 29.5: The Particle-Wave Duality of Light
- 29.6: The Wave Nature of Matter
- 29.7: Probability and The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
- 29.8: The Particle-Wave Duality Reviewed
- 29.E: Special Relativity (Exercise)

- 30: Atomic Physics
- 30.0: Prelude to Atomic Physics
- 30.1: Discovery of the Atom
- 30.2: Discovery of the Parts of the Atom - Electrons and Nuclei
- 30.3: Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
- 30.4: X Rays- Atomic Origins and Applications
- 30.5: Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations
- 30.6: The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization
- 30.7: Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization
- 30.8: Quantum Numbers and Rules
- 30.9: The Pauli Exclusion Principle
- 30.E: Atomic Physics (Exercises)

- 31: Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics
- 31.0: Prelude to Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics
- 31.1: Nuclear Radioactivity
- 31.2: Radiation Detection and Detectors
- 31.3: Substructure of the Nucleus
- 31.4: Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws
- 31.5: Half-Life and Activity
- 31.6: Binding Energy
- 31.7: Tunneling
- 31.E: Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics (Exercises)

- 32: Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics
- 32.0: Prelude to Applications of Nuclear Physics
- 32.1: Medical Imaging and Diagnostics
- 32.2: Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation
- 32.3: Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation
- 32.4: Food Irradiation
- 32.5: Fusion
- 32.6: Fission
- 32.7: Nuclear Weapons
- 32.E: Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics (Exercises)

- 33: Particle Physics
- 33.0: Prelude to Particle Physics
- 33.1: The Yukawa Particle and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Revisited
- 33.2: The Four Basic Forces
- 33.3: Accelerators Create Matter from Energy
- 33.4: Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws
- 33.5: Quarks - Is That All There Is?
- 33.6: GUTs - The Unification of Forces
- 33.E: Special Relativity (Exercise)

- 34: Frontiers of Physics
- 34.0: Prelude to Frontiers of Physics
- 34.1: Cosmology and Particle Physics
- 34.2: General Relativity and Quantum Gravity
- 34.3: Superstrings
- 34.4: Dark Matter and Closure
- 34.5: Complexity and Chaos
- 34.6: High-temperature Superconductors
- 34.7: Some Questions We Know to Ask
- 34.E: Frontiers of Physics (Exercises)

Sun, 02 Jun 2019 00:54:00 GMT

Book: College Physics (OpenStax)

- Contributed by OpenStax
- General Physics at OpenStax CNX

This introductory, algebra-based, two-semester college physics book is grounded with real-world examples, illustrations, and explanations to help students grasp key, fundamental physics concepts.

- 1: The Nature of Science and Physics
- 2: Kinematics
- 3: Two-Dimensional Kinematics
- 4: Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion
- 5: Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity
- 6: Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation
- 7: Work, Energy, and Energy Resources
- 8: Linear Momentum and Collisions
- 9: Statics and Torque
- 10: Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum
- 11: Fluid Statics
- 12: Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications
- 13: Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws
- 14: Heat and Heat Transfer Methods
- 15: Thermodynamics
- 16: Oscillatory Motion and Waves
- 17: Physics of Hearing
- 18: Electric Charge and Electric Field
- 19: Electric Potential and Electric Field
- 20: Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law
- 21: Circuits, Bioelectricity, and DC Instruments
- 22: Magnetism
- 23: Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies
- 24: Electromagnetic Waves
- 25: Geometric Optics
- 26: Vision and Optical Instruments
- 27: Wave Optics
- 28: Special Relativity
- 29: Introduction to Quantum Physics
- 30: Atomic Physics
- 31: Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics
- 32: Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics
- 33: Particle Physics
- 34: Frontiers of Physics

# Contributors

Paul Peter Urone (Professor Emeritus at California State University, Sacramento) and Roger Hinrichs (State University of New York, College at Oswego) with Contributing Authors: Kim Dirks (University of Auckland) and Manjula Sharma (University of Sydney). This work is licensed by OpenStax University Physics under a Creative Commons Attribution License (by 4.0).