ABSTRACT. Machining (milling, turning) is modelled in order to predict the vibrational behaviour of the Workpiece-Tool-Machine system as well as the resulting nal surface of the workpiece. This approach, based on nite elements and related techniques, is implemented in a software. Input parameters used in simulations, a priori known, are identied from experimental data. The general method used is explained and some of the problems encountered in the 3D approach are mentioned. An example of milling simulation is shown and the surface defects due to the vibrational behaviour of the WTM system are gured. The application of the method to a 2D approach is detailed. It is based on mechanical simulations which are done at a macroscopic scale. Mechanical and geometrical models of the tool and workpiece are used. They will allow a wide range of simulations in the future. An example of a turning operation is then presented, simulation results (displacements and cutting forces versus time, surface proles) are shown and comparisons with experimental results are made. KEYWORDS. Machining simulation, nal surface, vibrations.

1. Introduction Whenever optimisation of cutting conditions in machining or improving machine tool performance is studied , it is highly important to have numerical tools that can simulate, understand and predict the operations and the machine behaviour. This tool will allow to get a better understanding of the consequences of design choices taking into account a wide range of the physical phenomena involved such as mechanics, vibrations, dynamic behaviour of the Workpiece - Tool - Machine system (WTM) and so on

...

This tool must be eective

even in dicult cutting conditions, for instance conditions leading to a high level of vibrations. Those conditions seem to be unrealistic because avoided in production. And yet we must be able to simulate them in order to be sure that if stable conditions are predicted , cutting will really be stable. The aim of our work is to make a tool that will use data issued from experiments as parameters (cutting law, updated nite element models for example) and that will predict:

•

The resulting nal surface (circularity in turning, roughness and detailed

description of its geometry),

• The vibrational behaviour of Workpiece Tool -Machine system (displacements, cutting forces),

• The occurring of vibrational instabilities such as chatter, taking -in essenceall non-linearities into account. There are several works the aim of which is machining simulation but the goals are very often quite dierent.

The rst studies in this eld essentially

concerned cutting forces [MER45b], [MER45a] but we will only deal here with recent works. Several approaches can be noticed: the classical one is to determine empirical models. Here the constants of the cutting laws are calculated thanks to experimental results both in ordinary conditions [LIN90] and during high-speed machining [LAP98].

Another method deals with incremental

construction of analytical cutting law models, which are used in milling simulations [SHI94] taking spindle-bearing non-linearity into account for instance. Quite a few recent papers concentrate on predicting instabilities such as chatter but the problem is linearised to solve it.

Smith and Tlusty [SMI93] try

to simulate the stability lobe diagrams. Baker and Rouch [BAK98] focus on the use of structural nite element models in the stability analysis in turning. Budak and Altintas [BUD98a], [BUD98b] develop an analytical method of chatter instability in milling. However only a few recent works aim at the prediction of the nal surface.

Some like Spiewak [SPI94] see the nal sur-

face as a consequence of the rake face successive positions. Others develop a purely geometric model that does not take workpiece vibrational deformation into account [YOU94]. Some authors do take it into account. In end milling Montgomery and Altintas [MON91] have worked in that direction but geometric models used were not sucient enough to simulate

3D

operations. In

turning, Gouskov and Tichkiewitch [GOU96] studied the quality of the tooled

surface as a result of a dynamic process but their aim was mainly to see the inuence of the design parameter of the machine-tool in order to optimise the conception of the machine tool. The paper will mainly present the two-dimensional approach we develop. First the general method will be presented and its application to milling will lead to show the feasibility of the three-dimensional approach including workpiece vibrational deformation [BEA99].

Then the two-dimensional approach

will be explained. Finally the simulations done, the problems encountered and the comparisons with experimental results obtained in turning (2D) will be commented.

2. Suggested approach

Tool

Chip

Rake Face

Workpiece

Workpiece

Time t

WRF Wp Erasing phase from t to t+Dt

Rake Face

Erasing tool

Workpiece Time t+Dt

Figure 1: 2D intersection calculation To achieve simulations, several models are used:

• On one hand dynamic models for the workpiece, the machine and the tool which can be any type of model giving a good description of the real physical

behaviour (simple mass-spring model or full nite element model for instance),

• On the other hand a geometric model of the workpiece to enable its surface to be known anytime, its vibrational deformation is deduced from the dynamic model,

• And at last, a model for the tool workpiece interaction (where the cutting phenomenon takes place), it is a cutting law giving the cutting force versus, among others, the cutting section which is time and history dependent. In this macroscopic approach, the material removal is seen in a very simple way, without going into the mechanical details of its occurrence.

The main

assumption is based on the concept of erasing tool: wherever the tool passes, the corresponding workpiece material disappears. That leads to caculate the intersection (Fig. 1) of two volumes: the workpiece volume (Ωp ) and the volume generated by the rake face (ΩRF ). Using the nite element method, the classical equation describing the problem is:

M q¨ + C(ω)q˙ + Kq = Q(∂Ωc (q, t), q, q, ˙ . . .) M is the mass matrix, C is the Coriolis (C C (ω)) and damping (C D ) matrix (ω is the angular velocity of the workpiece), K is the stiness matrix,

where

q

is the vector including all the degrees of freedom, and

the cutting force

Fc

Q

is a consequence of

(known thanks to the cutting law). It is the non-linear

part of the equation.

∂Ωc

is the interaction surface between the tool (ΩRF ) and the workpiece

(Ωp ). Throughout the operation, it evolves and depends on the vibrations of WTM system and of the history of material removal (for example, when the rake face has already removed some material in the place where it is now). Currently

M ,K

and

C

matrices are considered constant because the cutting

process is studied on a short time range, it is true under the assumption that material removal has a negligeable inuence on the stiness and mass properties. If not, it can be taken into account by properly updating these matrices. To solve this equation, Newmark's method (an improved computational method based on a step by step integration of the above equation) is used and as the problem is non-linear, iterations are needed for each time increment. During each iteration, the intersection between the workpiece and the surface generated by the rake face is calculated in order to deduce the cutting force thanks to the cutting law. That is why it is extremely important to design a robust intersection part. We have been studying machining modelling and simulation tools for several years. The specicity of these works is that the workpiece geometry is modelled by a BREP model, that is a continuous set of geometric elements straight segments for

2D

problems and plane triangles for

3D

problems. Moreover, the

goal is to simulate a machining operation on its whole. and this for industrial workpiece that are not trivial. The rst method developed [COF96] was based on a

2.5D geometric model (a pile of 2D layers), it allowed to validate principles

and can be used in simple situations such as end or peripheral milling. The

second one which was designed to get results in face milling -but having in mind its extension to any other cutting conditions- was fully into account the workpiece vibrational deformation.

3D

but did not take

A new extension of the

former includes the workpiece vibrational deformation [BEA99]. Both proved the feasibility of a three-dimensional approach. All method led to satisfactory experimental comparisons, when experimental results were available. To solve a three-dimensionnal problem, the general method is used. range of modelling abilities is far wider than in the

The

2D situation detailled further

down. But of course some complications occur as a consequence. One aim of our simulations being the description of the nal surface roughness, a set of plane triangular facets has been chosen for the BREP geometric model describing the workpiece as well as the tool. This set may contain very small -and sometimes rather degenerated- facets, as it must be able to accurately represent the surface including its roughness. The complexity of the intersection algorithm is much more important than

2D case and robustness is more dicult to achieve. 3D FE model of the workpiece must be taken into account and its connec-

in the A

tion with the geometric model necessitates to be optimised because the intersection takes place at each iteration of each increment of the solution process. The geometrical model moves following nite element displacements, but it is completely distinct and dierent: nite elements may be three-dimensionnal ones and are very large compared to the dimension of triangular facets. Plate or shell elements can be used in simple situations but we preferred starting with

3D

elements because they allow more realistic simulations of the prob-

lems we have in mind at present time. They are mainly related to high speed machining, particularly face or end milling of exible workpieces, such as the one encountered in aerospace and automotive industries. In any case, the geometrical model must be "attached" to the undeformed conguration of the workpiece and its displacements then follow the deformation of the Finite Element model.

Material removal is managed in this con-

guration and, in the future, Finite Element remeshing, which is needed when exibility and mass change cannot be neglected, will take place there. This is a source of an additionnal complication because the intersection process must take place in the deformed conguration at each time increment. This even occurs with small relative displacements of the workpiece, which are of course assumed here. Transferring the new geometry (resulting from material removal) to the undeformed conguration is not immediate. An iterative process must be set up to transfer new generated facets and points. Modelling the cutting law, i.e. workpiece-tool interaction, is also a source of complication because it necessitates a more rened model and, as a consequence, more experimental informations, including transient behaviour. Here is an example of a three-dimensional results of a milling simulation taking the workpiece vibrational deformation into account. machined on its upper part (Fig. 2).

A thin plate is

Figure 2: Thin plate - Geometric model The plane triangles on the right correspond to the geometric model of the part of the workpiece to be machined. Once a simulation done, several results are obtained:

cutting force and

displacements are known versus time, surface defects can be drawn (Fig.

3)

and resulting roughness can be calculated.

Figure 3: Surface defects due to workpiece vibration Unfortunately not all simulation results could be seen through, mainly because the intersection part was not robust enough. That is why the more simple case -because it is two-dimensional- of orthogonal cutting is being re-studied. The aim is to get a good understanding of the intersection problem, as well as its connections with FE quantities, and to develop a robust method. Even if some of the complications of a

3D

approach have been mentioned

further up, diculties are still not obvious. They can more easily be imagined after understanding the

2D

approach that is now presented.

3. Two-dimensional approach The case of two-dimensional orthogonal cutting simulation studied is a turn-

ing operation, where the feed is perpendicular to the cutting speed. This type of operations enables to simplify the geometric model of the workpiece and the intersection calculation consequently. To solve this problem, the following models are used. First a geometric model of the workpiece is needed. The initial geometry of the workpiece is described by a set of straight segments connected to a set of points the coordinates of which are known. The description of the current geometry leads to change the number of points and their coordinates, as well as the segments and their connections, as the workpiece is machined.

The

workpiece prole is updated but it is not deformable (the deformation of the workpiece geometry is only included in the diculties).

In

2D,

3D

approach, as it leads to several

the rake face geometric model will be a single segment.

These models will enable the calculation of the intersection (Fig. 1) between the workpiece and the surface generated by the rake face. is constituted of three steps.

This calculation

First workpiece segments are selected only if

they may intersect a segment from the surface generated by the rake face, a classical method based on minima and maxima is used.

Then the segments

that do intersect other segment are determined. During this part of the calculation, geometric tolerances for points and segments are introduced. They are needed because numerical calculations do not lead to an exact geometric processing.

They allow to solve ambiguous cases, for example quasi-tangent

geometric elements which occur very often in machining simulations. A point will be considered on a segment if it is close enough to the segment,for instance. To this aim the geometric tolerance

ε

is introduced and denes what

is accepted as an intersection. For consistency, a minimum length must be set for segments,

5ε

5ε

was chosen to avoid ambiguous cases. Segments smaller than

must not be build up, and if it occurs, they must be wiped out before going

any further in the intersection process. Finally, the coordinates of intersection points are calculated and the geometric description of the workpiece can then be updated. To simulate the dynamic behaviour of the WTM system, nite elements can be used and the tool as well as the workpiece can be modelled by several beams for example. Other models can also be used. The mass, stiness and damping quantities used are deduced from experimental results. The geometric proles are attached to the nodes of the beam and they are enslaved to the kinematics of the problem. It is the rst link between geometric and nite element models and the workpiece deformation is taken into account thanks to the intersection. The third model used is the cutting law. It is identied using experimental results and it gives the cutting force versus the cutting height that is obtained thanks to the intersection. It is the second link between geometric and nite element models and this is how the workpiece surface is deduced. Several problems must be solved before implementing this approach.

A

crucial one is the calculation of the intersection between the workpiece and the volume generated by the rake face. We will now explain how we actually

calculate the intersection in

2D.

F

F

B

A A

D

B

D

Figure 4: Segments orientation Let us take two segments, one from the workpiece and one from the surface

−→

−→

→ e generated by the rake face. The smaller is called BA and the longest DF . − −→ −→ − −→ − → DF t e = ||DF is the unit vector on DF , → and is the normal unit vector to DF −→ || so that

− → − → e · t = 0.

The vectors are then re-orientated in order to have the same direction. Therefore the dot product

−→ −→ BA · DF

vector

This is done in order to insure the unicity and the

−→ BA

becomes

−→ AB .

is calculated. If it is negative (Fig. 4), the

robustness of the following processings. Once this operation completed, two selections are done, each aiming to eliminate segments that cannot intersect.

•

First selection

F

pscaF

A pscaD

B

D

Figure 5: First projection, dot product −→ DA

−→ −→ DB are created and they are projected onto DF . The results −→ → −→ are divided by DF norm and give pscaD and pscaF (pscaD = DA · − e and −→ − pscaF = DB · → e ). An intersection might exist if one of the values are between 0 − ε and 1 + ε, ε being a geometric tolerance. and

This enables to sort out the segments that are not in

−→ DF zone (Fig.

6): the

dashed segments can be eliminated because we are sure they cannot intersect

−→ DF .

A

B F

D

ε

ε

Figure 6: First selection of segments •

Second selection F DF median

perpenA

Β

Β

Α

Β D

D

perpenB

F

Α

Α

DA, DB, FA and DF depend on the point position in regard to DF middle.

Figure 7: Second projection Then a same kind of operation is done but in the transverse direction.

−→ −→ −→ −→ DF , DA or F A and DB −→ or F B are created. They are then projected onto the unit normal vector to −→ DF . The results of these projections (Fig. 7) are perpendA and perpendB −→ − −→ − −→ − −→ − → → → → (perpenA = DA · t or F A · t and perpenB = DB · t or F B · t ). An According to A and B positions when projected onto

intersection exist if perpendA and perpendB are of opposite sign or if one of the value is between

−ε

and

ε.

This enables to sort out the segments for which we are sure that cannot intersectect in the transverse direction (Fig. 8): the dashed segments can be eliminated.

B F

D

ε

A

Figure 8: Second selection of segments We now know that all the segments selected either cut it, with a tolerance of

ε.

−→ DF or are tangent to

If there is a intersection, its coordinates are calculated

in a very classical and simple way. But rst the tangency has to be checked because it corresponds to ambiguous situations which must be handled. If the segments are tangent, the number of intersection points to create has to be decided. Height dierent cases (Fig. 9) can be seen and there are no other cases because the minimum length of a segment is

5ε. F

D Case 7

Case 8

Case 1

Case 3

Case 2

Case 6

Case 5

Case 4

ε

ε

Figure 9: Cases of tangency When the segments are tangent, the corresponding case (Fig. 10) is chosen

−→ DF considered as a normed vector: −→ − −→ − → → positions (etaA = DA · e or F A · e and

according to the position of A and B on etaA and etaB illustrate these

−→ → −→ → etaB = DB · − e or F B · − e ). Each case has a specic treatement. For example for case 5, there are two intersection points: the srt one is D because A is in −→ D tolerance and the second one is B because it is on DF . Similar methods are used for other cases.

F DF median

B

B

etaB F

D

A B

etaA

A

A

DA, DB, FA and DF depend on the point position in regard to DF middle. The angle between is exagerated a lot.

D

Figure 10: Calculation for tangent cases Once all intersection points are found, the material removal has to be caculated (erasing phase Fig. 1). This implies another type of processing which is not detailled here. Segments and points have to be carefully selected in order to get a new set of segments and points. A cleaning procedure must be done to eliminate segments that are too small. Then the new prole is known.

4. Turning example A small cylinder is machined with a tool whose width is larger than the cylinder. It is a case of discontinuous and unstable cutting. It was chosen to illustrate the abilities of the two-dimensional method. Experimental tests have been designed so that it is not necessary to model the workpiece using beam elements.

The workpiece (Fig.

11) has a thin section in order to enable its

displacement in the plane that is orthogonal to the revolution axis.

A A-A

A Lp

Figure 11: Workpiece initial geometry

It is machined on RAMO-RVS 5 axis lathe.

The workpiece material is

Z200C13 and the cutting speed and the feed used to machine it are respectively 178m/min and 0.25mm/revolution.

Z Y

X

θz

ω

θy Workpiece

Tool u1 u2 α1 α2 Fee d

Figure 12: Models used for turning operation The tool is modelled by two beam elements of same length and the workpiece by a rigid bar articulated at one of its end (Fig. 12), which is a good modelling of its transverse behaviour due to the narrowing of its initial cross section.

Piece

Z

Tool Y

d

R

Figure 13: Coordinate System The dynamic equation to solve is

M q¨+C q˙ +Kq = Q and each of its member

is detailled in appendix. The coordinate system (Fig. 13) used for the results has the opposite direction of the feed as Y-axis and the vertical direction as Z-axis. Using the above experimental and simulation conditions, cutting forces and

Fz

(Fig. 14 left graph) as well as workpiece displacements

dy

and

dz

Fy

(Fig.

15 left graph) were measured. Simulations have been made taking Coriolis eect into account (Fig.

14

and 15 right graph) because we observed that it could not be neglected. As a matter of fact, when cutting is unstable, Coriolis eect in turning is important, even at relatively small rotational speed.

Simulation result

1000

1000

800

800

Normal cutting force (N)

Normal cutting force (N)

Experimental result

600

400

200

600

400

200

0

0

-200 0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

-200 0.05

0.3

0.1

0.15

Figure 14: Normal cutting forces Fy

100

100 Horizontal displacement (µm)

Horizontal displacement (µm)

150

50

0

-50

50

0

-50

-100

-100

-150

-150

0.05

0.1

0.3

Simulation result

150

0

0.25

versus time

Experimental result

-200

0.2 Time (s)

Time (s)

0.15 Time (s)

0.2

0.25

0.3

-200

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

Time (s)

Figure 15: Horizontal workpiece displacement dy

versus time

The genaral shape of the curves found for displacements (Fig. 15) and forces (Fig. 14) are quite good compared to experimental curves. When simulated cutting forces are compared to experimental ones in the normal (Fig. 16 on the left) and tangential (Fig. 16 on the right) direction, the values drawn agree with an average error of

10%.

The workpiece surface is known anytime and the proles tend to prove how important vibrations are in the actual conditions. The dierence between the theoretical prole and the simulated prole (Fig. 17) can be drawn. After the second revolution, the cutting depth varies from a variation of

40%

0.15

to

0.25

mm, that means

of feed.

It can easily be imagined that the circularity of the workpiece is highly deteriorated. The impact of the curve found for simulated cutting forces (Fig. 14) can be seen on workpiece prole. The variation of the radius for the second and third revolution are analogous to the variation of the cutting forces. When cutting forces lower, so does the simulated radius.

0

600

Tangential cutting force (N)

Normal cutting force (N)

500

400

300

200

-500

-1000

100

-1500

0 0.1

0.12

0.14

0.16 time (s)

0.18

0.2

0.22

0.1

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18 time (s)

0.2

0.22

0.24

0.26

Figure 16: Tangential cutting forces The more revolutions the workpiece does, the more cutting is perturbated. But in fact, going further in the simulation is not necessary: what we want to observe is the divergence of the phenomenon. Once it has occured it does not seam interesting nor feasible to make accurate preditions. Moreover accurate predictions would need accurate cutting law models when cutting conditions are very perturbated.

5. Conclusion In this paper we have described our approach of machining simulation. We have been working for about ten years on it and there is still work to be done. Up to now, the feasibility of the

3D

approach including workpiece vibrational

deformation has been proved and several diculties have been solved, if we except the intersection part that is not perfectly robust.

2D approach. The objective to make a 2D problems has been fullled. Still some measures

This motivated the study of our robust intersection part for

lack to compare simulated and experimental workpiece roughness. But it can be seen that our simulations agree quite well with experimental results. Our main goal is now to make a more robust intersection part for the

3D

approach, so that it becomes even more eective. The approach will then be entirely validated but full and detailed experimentals results still lack. In order to complete validations, experiments where all geometrical and physical parameters are simultaneously recorded should be undertaken:

especially dimensions, proles at dierent stages of machining,

cutting laws, forces and displacements must be available.

Acknowledgements We would like to thank Dr Lapujoulade from PNC2 Lab (ENSAM-Paris, France) for the experimental results he shared with us and for his help.

Figure 17: Geometric results (in mm) after the second revolution

References: [BAK98]

Baker, J.R., Rouch, K.E.,

"Use of nite element structural models in analyzing machine tool chatter", In Annals of CIRP, vol. 47, 1998. [BEA99] Beauchesne, E., Simulation numérique de l'usinage à l'échelle Macroscopique: prise en compte d'une pièce déformable, PhD thesis, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Arts et Métiers - CER de Paris, 1999. [BUD98a] Budak, E., Altintas, Y., "Analytical prediction of chatter stability in milling-part I: General formulation", ASME Trans.-Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, vol. 120, p. 2230, 1998. [BUD98b]

Budak, E., Altintas, Y., "Analytical prediction of chatter stability in milling-part II: Application of the general formulation to common milling systems", ASME Trans.-Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, vol. 120, p. 2230, 1998. [COF96] Coffignal, G., Beauchesne, E., Dekelbab, K., Hakem, N., "Mechanical simulation of machining using cutting tools", In 1st International Conference - IDMME'96, vol. 1, p. 145154, 1996. [GOU96] Gouskov, A., Tichkiewitch, S., "Modélisation de l'opération de tournage: Prise en compte des aspects dynamiques dans la formation de la surface usinée", In 1st International Conference - IDMME'96, vol. 1, p. 245255, 1996. [LAP98] Lapujoulade, F., Coffignal, G., Pimont, J., "Cutting forces evaluation during high-speed milling", In 2nd International Conference - IDMME'98, vol. 1, p. 541548, 1998. [LIN90] Lin, S.G., DeVor, R.E., Kapoor,S.G., "The eect of variable speed cutting on vibration control inface milling", ASME Trans.-Journal of Engineering for Industry, vol. 112, pp 8188, 1990. [MER45a] Merchant, E., "Mechanics of metal cutting process. II. plasticity conditions in orthogonal cutting", Journal of applied physics, vol. 16, n◦ 5, p. 318324, 1945. [MER45b] Merchant, E., " Mechanics of metal cutting process. I.orthogonal cutting and type 2 chip", Journal of applied physics, vol. 16, n◦ 5, p. 267275, 1945. [MON91] Montgomery, D., Altintas, Y., "Mechanism of cutting force and surface generation in dynamic milling", ASME Trans.-Journal of Engineering for Industry, vol. 113, p. 160168, 1991. [SHI94] Shin, Y., Waters, A.J., "Face milling process modeling with structural monlinearity", Transactions of NAMRI/SME, vol. 22, p. 157163, 1994.

[SMI93]

Smith, S., Tlusty, J.,

"Ecient simulation programs for chatter in milling", In Annals of CIRP, vol. 43, p. 463466, 1993.

[SPI94]

Spiewak,

S.A., "Analytical modeling of cutting point trajectories in milling", ASME Trans.-Journal of Engineering for Industry, vol. 116, p. 440448, 1994. [YOU94] Young, H.-T., Mathew, P., Oxley, P.L.B., " Predicting cutting forces in face milling", International Journal of Machine, Tools and Manufacture, vol. 34, n◦ 6, p. 771783, 1994.

Appendix In the case of orthogonal turning studied, the dynamic equation to solve is M q¨ + C q˙ + Kq = Q where:

q T = u1

QT = Fcz 2

156 6 .. 6 . 6 ρSLb 6 .. M= 6 . 420 6 6sym 4 0 0

0

Fcy Lp

0

4L2b

13Lb

−3L2b

0

0

... 0 0

312 ... 0 0

0 8L2b 0 0

0 0

0 0 0

420 J ρSL b 0

6EI L2

−12EI L3

6EI L2

0

0

4EI Lb

−6EI L2

2EI Lb

0

0

24EI L3

0

0

0

... 0 0

8EI Lb

0 r 0

0 0 r

b

b

b

b

... 0 0

0

0 0

−Fcz Lp

0

αz

0

b

b

αy

−13Lb

6 . 6 . 6 . 6 6 . K = 6 .. 6 6 6 sym 4 0

6 .. 6 . 6 6 6 . C = 6 .. 6 6 6 sym 4

0

θ2

54

L3

λt 12EI L3

u2

22Lb

2 12EI

2

θ1

b

0 0

3 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5

λt −12EI L3

λt 6EI L2

0

0

λt 4EI Lb

λt −6EI L2

λt 2EI Lb

0

0

λt 24EI L3

0

0

0

... 0 0

λt 8EI Lb 0 0

0 λp r ωJ

0 −ωJ λp r

b

b

b

... 0 0

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5

420 J ρSL b

λt 6EI L2 b

3

b

3 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5

The cutting law used can be written as follows: pT h e FT = −KT · ( 2·10 · 2·10 4) 3 represents the force that is tangential to the rake pN h e face, and FN = −KN · ( 2·104 ) · 2·10 3 repesents the force that is normal to the rake face. KT 434 pT 0.49 KN 891 pN 0.83 are the numerical values used, h is the cutting height and e is the workpiece thickness. The values used to model the tool are:

ρ S E I Lb λt Rake angle Clearance angle

7.8kg/m3 0.1 · 10−3 m2 21 · 1010 N/m2 8.33 · 10−10 m4 18 · 10−3 m 5 · 10−8 0◦ 11◦

λt corresponds to a 10−2 times the critical damping. The values used to model the tool are: J 3.99 · 10−2 kg · m2 r 21.9 · 104 N · m/rad λp 8.63 · 10−7 ω 125.66rad/s Lp 98.5 · 10−3 m e 2 · 10−3 m R 23.6 · 10−3 m d 23.45 · 10−3 m λp corresponds to a 10−2 times the critical damping.