# Book: University Physics (OpenStax)

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- Map: University Physics I - Mechanics, Sound, Oscillations, and Waves (OpenStax)
- 1: Units and Measurement
- 1.0: Prelude to Units and Measurement
- 1.1: The Scope and Scale of Physics
- 1.2: Units and Standards
- 1.3: Unit Conversion
- 1.4: Dimensional Analysis
- 1.5: Estimates and Fermi Calculations
- 1.6: Significant Figures
- 1.7: Solving Problems in Physics
- 1.A: Units and Measurement (Answers)
- 1.E: Units and Measurement (Exercises)
- 1.S: Units and Measurement (Summary)

- 2: Vectors
- 2.0: Prelude to Vectors
- 2.1: Scalars and Vectors (Part 1)
- 2.1: Scalars and Vectors (Part 2)
- 2.2: Coordinate Systems and Components of a Vector (Part 1)
- 2.2: Coordinate Systems and Components of a Vector (Part 2)
- 2.3: Algebra of Vectors
- 2.3: Algebra of Vectors Examples
- 2.4: Products of Vectors (Part 1)
- 2.4: Products of Vectors (Part 2)
- 2.A: Vectors (Answers)
- 2.E: Vectors (Exercises)
- 2.S: Vectors (Summary)

- 3: Motion Along a Straight Line
- 3.0: Prelude Motion Along a Straight Line
- 3.1: Position, Displacement, and Average Velocity
- 3.2: Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
- 3.3: Average and Instantaneous Acceleration
- 3.4: Motion with Constant Acceleration (Part 1)
- 3.4: Motion with Constant Acceleration (Part 2)
- 3.5: Free Fall
- 3.6: Finding Velocity and Displacement from Acceleration
- 3.E: Motion Along a Straight Line (Exercises)
- 3.S: Motion Along a Straight Line (Summary)

- 4: Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
- 4.0: Prelude to Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
- 4.1: Displacement and Velocity Vectors
- 4.2: Acceleration Vector
- 4.3: Projectile Motion
- 4.4: Uniform Circular Motion
- 4.5: Relative Motion in One and Two Dimensions
- 4.E: Motion in Two and Three Dimensions (Exercises)
- 4.S: Motion in Two and Three Dimensions (Summary)

- 5: Newton's Laws of Motion
- 6: Applications of Newton's Laws
- 6.0: Prelude to Applications of Newton's Laws
- 6.1: Solving Problems with Newton's Laws (Part 1)
- 6.1: Solving Problems with Newton's Laws (Part 2)
- 6.2: Friction (Part 1)
- 6.2: Friction (Part 2)
- 6.3: Centripetal Force
- 6.4: Drag Force and Terminal Speed
- 6.E: Applications of Newton's Laws (Exercises)
- 6.S: Applications of Newton's Laws (Summary)

- 7: Work and Kinetic Energy
- 8: Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy
- 8.0: Prelude to Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy
- 8.1: Potential Energy of a System
- 8.2: Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces
- 8.3: Conservation of Energy
- 8.4: Potential Energy Diagrams and Stability
- 8.5: Sources of Energy
- 8.E: Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy (Exercises)
- 8.S: Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy (Summary)

- 9: Linear Momentum and Collisions
- 9.0: Prelude to Linear Momentum and Collisions
- 9.1: Linear Momentum
- 9.2: Impulse and Collisions (Part 1)
- 9.2: Impulse and Collisions (Part 2)
- 9.3: Conservation of Linear Momentum (Part 1)
- 9.3: Conservation of Linear Momentum (Part 2)
- 9.4: Types of Collisions
- 9.5: Collisions in Multiple Dimensions
- 9.6: Center of Mass (Part 1)
- 9.6: Center of Mass (Part 2)
- 9.7: Rocket Propulsion
- 9.E: Linear Momentum and Collisions (Exercises)
- 9.S: Linear Momentum and Collisions (Summary)

- 10: Fixed-Axis Rotation Introduction
- 10.0: Prelude to Fixed-Axis Rotation Introduction
- 10.1: Rotational Variables
- 10.2: Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration
- 10.3: Relating Angular and Translational Quantities
- 10.4: Moment of Inertia and Rotational Kinetic Energy
- 10.5: Calculating Moments of Inertia
- 10.6: Torque
- 10.7: Newton’s Second Law for Rotation
- 10.8: Work and Power for Rotational Motion
- 10.E: Fixed-Axis Rotation Introduction (Exercises)
- 10.S: Fixed-Axis Rotation Introduction (Summary)

- 11: Angular Momentum
- 12: Static Equilibrium and Elasticity
- 12.0: Prelude to Static Equilibrium and Elasticity
- 12.1: Conditions for Static Equilibrium
- 12.2: Examples of Static Equilibrium
- 12.3: Stress, Strain, and Elastic Modulus (Part 1)
- 12.3: Stress, Strain, and Elastic Modulus (Part 2)
- 12.4: Elasticity and Plasticity
- 12.E: Static Equilibrium and Elasticity (Exercises)
- 12.S: Static Equilibrium and Elasticity (Summary)

- 13: Gravitation
- 13.0: Prelude to Gravitation
- 13.1: Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
- 13.2: Gravitation Near Earth's Surface
- 13.3: Gravitational Potential Energy and Total Energy
- 13.4: Satellite Orbits and Energy
- 13.5: Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
- 13.6: Tidal Forces
- 13.7: Einstein's Theory of Gravity
- 13.E: Gravitation (Exercises)
- 13.S: Gravitation (Summary)

- 14: Fluid Mechanics
- 14.0:Prelude to Fluid Mechanics
- 14.1: Fluids, Density, and Pressure (Part 1)
- 14.1: Fluids, Density, and Pressure (Part 2)
- 14.2: Measuring Pressure
- 14.3: Pascal's Principle and Hydraulics
- 14.4: Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy
- 14.5: Fluid Dynamics
- 14.6: Bernoulli’s Equation
- 14.7: Viscosity and Turbulence
- 14.E: Fluid Mechanics (Exercises)
- 14.S: Fluid Mechanics (Summary)

- 15: Oscillations
- 16: Waves
- 17: Sound
- Answer Key to Selected Problems
- 01: Units and Measurement
- 02: Vectors
- 03: Motion Along a Straight Line
- 04: Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
- 05: Newton's Laws of Motion
- 06: Applications of Newton's Laws
- 07: Work and Kinetic Energy
- 08: Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy
- 09: Linear Momentum and Collisions
- 10: Fixed-Axis Rotation Introduction
- 11: Angular Momentum
- 12: Static Equilibrium and Elasticity
- 13: Gravitation
- 14: Fluid Mechanics
- 15: Oscillations
- 16: Waves
- 17: Sound

- 1: Units and Measurement
- Map: University Physics II - Thermodynamics, Electricity, and Magnetism (OpenStax)
- 1: Temperature and Heat
- 1.0: Prelude to Temperature and Heat
- 1.1: Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium
- 1.2: Thermometers and Temperature Scales
- 1.3: Thermal Expansion
- 1.4: Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry
- 1.5: Phase Changes
- 1.6: Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
- 1.E: Temperature and Heat (Exercises)
- 1.S: Temperature and Heat (Summary)
- 1.A: Temperature and Heat (Answer)

- 2: The Kinetic Theory of Gases
- 2.0: Prelude to The Kinetic Theory of Gases
- 2.1: Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas
- 2.2: Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed
- 2.3: Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy
- 2.4: Distribution of Molecular Speeds
- 2.A: The Kinetic Theory of Gases (Answer)
- 2.E: The Kinetic Theory of Gases Introduction (Exercises)
- 2.S: The Kinetic Theory of Gases (Summary)

- 3: The First Law of Thermodynamics
- 3.0: Prelude to The First Law of Thermodynamics
- 3.1: Thermodynamic Systems
- 3.2: Work, Heat, and Internal Energy
- 3.3: First Law of Thermodynamics
- 3.4: Thermodynamic Processes
- 3.5: Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas
- 3.6: Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
- 3.A: The First Law of Thermodynamics (Answer)
- 3.E: The First Law of Thermodynamics (Exercise)
- 3.S: The First Law of Thermodynamics (Summary)

- 4: The Second Law of Thermodynamics
- 4.0: Prelude to The Second Law of Thermodynamics
- 4.1: Reversible and Irreversible Processes
- 4.2: Heat Engines
- 4.3: Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
- 4.4: Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
- 4.5: The Carnot Cycle
- 4.6: Entropy
- 4.7: Entropy on a Microscopic Scale
- 4.A: The Second Law of Thermodynamics (Answer)
- 4.E: The Second Law of Thermodynamics (Exercise)
- 4.S: The Second Law of Thermodynamics (Summary)

- 5: Electric Charges and Fields
- 5.0: Prelude to Electric Charges and Fields
- 5.1: Electric Charge
- 5.2: Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction
- 5.3: Coulomb's Law
- 5.4: Electric Field
- 5.5: Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions
- 5.6: Electric Field Lines
- 5.7: Electric Dipoles
- 5.A: Electric Charges and Fields (Answer)
- 5.E: Electric Charges and Fields (Exercises)
- 5.S: Electric Charges and Fields (Summary)

- 6: Gauss's Law
- 7: Electric Potential
- 7.0: Prelude to Electric Potential
- 7.1: Electric Potential Energy
- 7.2: Electric Potential and Potential Difference
- 7.3: Calculations of Electric Potential
- 7.4: Determining Field from Potential
- 7.5: Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors
- 7.6: Applications of Electrostatics
- 7.A: Electric Potential (Answer)
- 7.E: Electric Potential (Exercises)
- 7.S: Electric Potential (Summary)

- 8: Capacitance
- 9: Current and Resistance
- 9.0: Prelude to Current and Resistance
- 9.1: Electrical Current
- 9.2: Model of Conduction in Metals
- 9.3: Resistivity and Resistance
- 9.4: Ohm's Law
- 9.5: Electrical Energy and Power
- 9.6: Superconductors
- 9.A: Current and Resistance (Answers)
- 9.E: Current and Resistance (Exercises)
- 9.S: Current and Resistance (Summary)

- 10: Direct-Current Circuits
- 10.0: Prelude to Direct-Current Circuits
- 10.1: Electromotive Force
- 10.2: Resistors in Series and Parallel
- 10.3: Kirchhoff's Rules
- 10.4: Electrical Measuring Instruments
- 10.5: RC Circuits
- 10.6: Household Wiring and Electrical Safety
- 10.A: Direct-Current Circuits (Answers)
- 10.E: Direct-Current Circuits (Exercise)
- 10.S: Direct-Current Circuits (Summary)

- 11: Magnetic Forces and Fields
- 11.0: Prelude to Magnetic Forces and Fields
- 11.1: Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries
- 11.2: Magnetic Fields and Lines
- 11.3: Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
- 11.4: Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
- 11.5: Force and Torque on a Current Loop
- 11.6: The Hall Effect
- 11.7: Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields
- 11.A: Magnetic Forces and Fields (Answers)
- 11.E: Magnetic Forces and Fields (Exercise)
- 11.S: Magnetic Forces and Fields (Summary)

- 12: Sources of Magnetic Fields
- 12.0: Prelude to Sources of Magnetic Fields
- 12.1: The Biot-Savart Law
- 12.2: Magnetic Field due to a Thin Straight Wire
- 12.3: Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents
- 12.4: Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
- 12.5: Ampère’s Law
- 12.6: Solenoids and Toroids
- 12.7: Magnetism in Matter
- 12.A: Sources of Magnetic Fields (Answers)
- 12.E: Sources of Magnetic Fields (Exercise)
- 12.S: Sources of Magnetic Fields (Summary)

- 13: Electromagnetic Induction
- 13.0: Prelude to Electromagnetic Induction
- 13.1: Faraday’s Law
- 13.2: Lenz's Law
- 13.3: Motional Emf
- 13.4: Induced Electric Fields
- 13.5: Eddy Currents
- 13.6: Electric Generators and Back Emf
- 13.7: Applications of Electromagnetic Induction
- 13.A: Electromagnetic Induction (Answers)
- 13.E: Electromagnetic Induction (Exercises)
- 13.S: Electromagnetic Induction (Summary)

- 14: Inductance
- 15: Alternating-Current Circuits
- 15.0: Prelude to Alternating-Current Circuits
- 15.1: AC Sources
- 15.2: Simple AC Circuits
- 15.3: RLC Series Circuits with AC
- 15.4: Power in an AC Circuit
- 15.5: Resonance in an AC Circuit
- 15.6: Transformers
- 15.A: Alternating-Current Circuits (Answers)
- 15.E: Alternating-Current Circuits (Exercise)
- 15.S: Alternating-Current Circuits (Summary)

- 16: Electromagnetic Waves
- 16.0: Prelude to Electromagnetic Waves
- 16.1: Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
- 16.2: Plane Electromagnetic Waves
- 16.3: Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
- 16.4: Momentum and Radiation Pressure
- 16.5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum
- 16.A: Electromagnetic Waves (Answer)
- 16.E: Electromagnetic Waves (Exercises)
- 16.S: Electromagnetic Waves (Summary)

- 1: Temperature and Heat
- Map: University Physics III - Optics and Modern Physics (OpenStax)
- 1: The Nature of Light
- 2: Geometric Optics and Image Formation
- 2.0: Prelude to Geometric Optics and Image Formation
- 2.1: Images Formed by Plane Mirrors
- 2.2: Spherical Mirrors
- 2.3: Images Formed by Refraction
- 2.4: Thin Lenses
- 2.5: The Eye
- 2.6: The Camera
- 2.7: The Simple Magnifier
- 2.8: Microscopes and Telescopes
- 2.A: Geometric Optics and Image Formation (Answers)
- 2.E: Geometric Optics and Image Formation (Exercises)
- 2.S: Geometric Optics and Image Formation (Summary)

- 3: Interference
- 4: Diffraction
- 4.0: Prelude to Diffraction
- 4.1: Single-Slit Diffraction
- 4.2: Intensity in Single-Slit Diffraction
- 4.3: Double-Slit Diffraction
- 4.4: Diffraction Gratings
- 4.5: Circular Apertures and Resolution
- 4.6: X-Ray Diffraction
- 4.7: Holography
- 4.A: Diffraction (Answers)
- 4.E: Diffraction (Exercises)
- 4.S: Diffraction (Summary)

- 5: Relativity
- 5.0: Prelude to Relativity
- 5.1: Invariance of Physical Laws
- 5.2: Relativity of Simultaneity
- 5.3: Time Dilation
- 5.4: Length Contraction
- 5.5: The Lorentz Transformation
- 5.6: Relativistic Velocity Transformation
- 5.7: Doppler Effect for Light
- 5.8: Relativistic Momentum
- 5.9: Relativistic Energy
- 5.A: Relativity (Answers)
- 5.E: Relativity (Exercises)
- 5.S: Relativity (Summary)

- 6: Photons and Matter Waves
- 6.0: Prelude to Photons and Matter Waves
- 6.1: Blackbody Radiation
- 6.2: Photoelectric Effect
- 6.3: The Compton Effect
- 6.4: Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom
- 6.5: De Broglie’s Matter Waves
- 6.6: Wave-Particle Duality
- 6.A: Photons and Matter Waves Page Title (Answer)
- 6.E: Photons and Matter Waves (Exercise)
- 6.S: Photons and Matter Waves (Summary)

- 7: Quantum Mechanics
- 7.0: Prelude to Quantum Mechanics
- 7.1: Wavefunctions
- 7.2: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
- 7.3: The Schrӧdinger Equation
- 7.4: The Quantum Particle in a Box
- 7.5: The Quantum Harmonic Oscillator
- 7.6: The Quantum Tunneling of Particles through Potential Barriers
- 7.A: Quantum Mechanics (Answers)
- 7.E: Quantum Mechanics (Exercises)
- 7.S: Quantum Mechanics (Summary)

- 8: Atomic Structure
- 8.0: Prelude to Atomic Structure
- 8.1: The Hydrogen Atom
- 8.2: Orbital Magnetic Dipole Moment of the Electron
- 8.3: Electron Spin
- 8.4: The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table
- 8.5: Atomic Spectra and X-rays
- 8.6: Lasers
- 8.A: Atomic Structure (Answers)
- 8.E: Atomic Structure (Exercises)
- 8.S: Atomic Structure (Summary)

- 9: Condensed Matter Physics
- 9.0: Prelude to Condensed Matter Physics
- 9.1: Types of Molecular Bonds
- 9.2: Molecular Spectra
- 9.3: Bonding in Crystalline Solids
- 9.4: Free Electron Model of Metals
- 9.5: Band Theory of Solids
- 9.6: Semiconductors and Doping
- 9.7: Semiconductor Devices
- 9.8: Superconductivity
- 9.A: Condensed Matter Physics (Answers)
- 9.E: Condensed Matter Physics (Exercises)
- 9.S: Condensed Matter Physics (Summary)

- 10: Nuclear Physics
- 10.0: Prelude to Nuclear Physics
- 10.1: Properties of Nuclei
- 10.2: Nuclear Binding Energy
- 10.3: Radioactive Decay
- 10.4: Nuclear Reactions
- 10.5: Fission
- 10.6: Nuclear Fusion
- 10.7: Medical Applications and Biological Effects of Nuclear Radiation
- 10.A: Nuclear Physics (Answers)
- 10.E: Nuclear Physics (Exercises)
- 10.S: Nuclear Physics (Summary)

- 11: Particle Physics and Cosmology
- 11.0: Prelude to Particle Physics and Cosmology
- 11.1: Introduction to Particle Physics
- 11.2: Particle Conservation Laws
- 11.3: Quarks
- 11.4: Particle Accelerators and Detectors
- 11.5: The Standard Model
- 11.6: The Big Bang
- 11.7: Evolution of the Early Universe
- 11.A: Particle Physics and Cosmology (Answers)
- 11.E Particle Physics and Cosmology (Exercises)
- 11.S: Particle Physics and Cosmology (Summary)

Sun, 26 Nov 2017 19:06:13 GMT

Book: University Physics (OpenStax)

- Contributed by OpenStax
- General Physics at OpenStax CNX

*University Physics* is designed for the two- or three-semester calculus-based physics course. The text has been developed to meet the scope and sequence of most university physics courses and provides a foundation for a career in mathematics, science, or engineering. The book provides an important opportunity for students to learn the core concepts of physics and understand how those concepts apply to their lives and to the world around them.

### Contributors

Samuel J. Ling (Truman State University), Jeff Sanny (Loyola Marymount University), and Bill Moebs with many contributing authors. This work is licensed by OpenStax University Physics under a Creative Commons Attribution License (by 4.0).