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Appendix D: Astronomical Data

Celestial Object Mean Distance from Sun (million km) Period of Revolution (d = days) (y = years) Period of Rotation at Equator Eccentricity of Orbit
Sun 27 d
Mercury 57.9 88 d 59 d 0.206
Venus 108.2 224.7 d 243 d 0.007
Earth 149.6 365.26 d 23 h 56 min 4 s 0.017
Mars 227.9 687 d 24 h 37 min 23 s 0.093
Jupiter 778.4 11.9 y 9 h 50 min 30 s 0.048
Saturn 1426.7 29.46 y 10 h 14 min 0.054
Uranus 2871.0 84.0 y 17 h 14 min 0.047
Neptune 4498.3 164.8 y 16 h 0.009
Earth's Moon 14639 (0.386 from Earth) 27.3 d 27.3 d 0.055

 

Celestial Object Equatorial Diameter (km) Mass (Earth = 1) Density (g/cm3)
Sun 1,392,000 333,000.00 1.4
Mercury 4879 0.06 5.4
Venus 12,104 0.82 5.2
Earth 12,756 1.00 5.5
Mars 6794 0.11 3.9
Jupiter 142,984 317.83 1.3
Saturn 120,536 95.16 0.7
Uranus 51,118 14.54 1.3
Neptune 48,528 17.15 1.6
Earth's Moon 3476 0.01 3.3

Other Data:

Mass of Earth: 5.97 x 1024 kg

Mass of the Moon: 7.36 x 1022 kg

Mass of the Sun: 1.99 x 1030 kg

Contributors

  • Samuel J. Ling (Truman State University), Jeff Sanny (Loyola Marymount University), and Bill Moebs with many contributing authors. This work is licensed by OpenStax University Physics under a Creative Commons Attribution License (by 4.0).