# 9: Electromagnetic Induction

- Page ID
- 32228

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In this and the next several chapters, you will see a wonderful symmetry in the behavior exhibited by time-varying electric and magnetic fields. Mathematically, this symmetry is expressed by an additional term in Ampère’s law and by another key equation of electromagnetism called Faraday’s law. We also discuss how moving a wire through a magnetic field produces an emf or voltage.

- 9.1: Prelude to Electromagnetic Induction
- We have been considering electric fields created by fixed charge distributions and magnetic fields produced by constant currents, but electromagnetic phenomena are not restricted to these stationary situations. Most of the interesting applications of electromagnetism are, in fact, time-dependent. To investigate some of these applications, we now remove the time-independent assumption that we have been making and allow the fields to vary with time.

- 9.2: Faraday’s Law
- An emf is induced when the magnetic field in the coil is changed by pushing a bar magnet into or out of the coil. Emfs of opposite signs are produced by motion in opposite directions, and the directions of emfs are also reversed by reversing poles. The same results are produced if the coil is moved rather than the magnet—it is the relative motion that is important. The faster the motion, the greater the emf, and there is no emf when the magnet is stationary relative to the coil.

- 9.3: Lenz's Law
- The direction of the induced emf drives current around a wire loop to always oppose the change in magnetic flux that causes the emf. Lenz’s law can also be considered in terms of conservation of energy. If pushing a magnet into a coil causes current, the energy in that current must have come from somewhere. If the induced current causes a magnetic field opposing the increase in field of the magnet we pushed in, then the situation is clear.

- 9.4: Motional Emf
- Magnetic flux depends on three factors: the strength of the magnetic field, the area through which the field lines pass, and the orientation of the field with the surface area. If any of these quantities varies, a corresponding variation in magnetic flux occurs. So far, we’ve only considered flux changes due to a changing field. Now we look at another possibility: a changing area through which the field lines pass including a change in the orientation of the area.

- 9.5: Induced Electric Fields
- The fact that emfs are induced in circuits implies that work is being done on the conduction electrons in the wires. What can possibly be the source of this work? We know that it’s neither a battery nor a magnetic field, for a battery does not have to be present in a circuit where current is induced, and magnetic fields never do work on moving charges. The answer is that the source of the work is an electric field that is induced in the wires.

- 9.6: Eddy Currents
- A motional emf is induced when a conductor moves in a magnetic field or when a magnetic field moves relative to a conductor. If motional emf can cause a current in the conductor, we refer to that current as an eddy current.

- 9.7: Electric Generators and Back Emf
- A variety of important phenomena and devices can be understood with Faraday’s law. In this section, we examine two of these: Electric Generators and Electric Motors.

- 9.8: Applications of Electromagnetic Induction
- Modern society has numerous applications of Faraday’s law of induction, as we will explore in this chapter and others. At this juncture, let us mention several that involve recording information using magnetic fields.