Skip to main content
\(\require{cancel}\)
Physics LibreTexts

11: Particle Physics and Cosmology

Thumbnail: A proton is composed of two up quarks, one down quark, and the gluons that mediate the forces "binding" them together. The color assignment of individual quarks is arbitrary, but all three colors must be present. Image used with perimssion (CC BY-SA 2.5; Arpad Horvath).